- Scientific name
- Lactifluus marielleae
- J. Duque & M.A. Neves
- Common names
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- IUCN Red List Criteria
- de Andrade Borges, M.E., Neves, M.A., Duque Barbosa, J.A., Kossmann, T., Martins da Cunha, K., Costa-Rezende, D.H., Santos Ferreira da Cruz, R.H. & Drechsler-Santos, E.R.
- Mueller, G.M.
This species is a Brazilian endemic, known only from large urban forests in the Atlantic Forest domain in southeastern Brazil at elevations above 500 metres. As the species is conspicuous but has only been found very few times, even in sites that are frequently sampled, Lactifluus marielleae
is considered a rare species. The total population is estimated at no more than 2,500 mature individuals, all in one subpopulation. Based on the severe habitat loss and decline in habitat quality we infer a population decline of around 26% over the past three generations (50 years). This decline in habitat and associated population decline is ongoing. It is assessed as Endangered EN C2a(ii)
This species is known from three sites in Brazil: one in Minas Gerais state (Belo Horizonte Mangabeiras City Park) and two in Rio de Janeiro state (Rio de Janeiro, Tijuca National Park and Teresópolis, Serra dos Órgãos National Park). It is likely that the species is more widespread along the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil.
Population and Trends
This species occurs in preserved fragments of Atlantic Forest, however, these can be considered urban forests, as they are located in the middle of large cities. There are four known collections of the species, three from Rio de Janeiro state and one sample from Minas Gerais state (Barbosa et al. 2020). This is a conspicuous species, with a vibrant colour. Since the species is conspicuous, but has only been found very few times even in sites like Tijuca National Park, which is frequently sampled, Lactifluus marielleae is considered a rare species. It is estimated that the species is distributed along the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Southern Brazil is well sampled, including by the authors of the species, and the species has never been found there. Also, northeastern Brazil is well sampled, considering the large presence of researchers collecting in the region, and there are no records of the species there either. Therefore, we believe that Lactifluus marielleae is restricted to southeastern Brazil.
Recorded mature individuals consisted of between 3 and 10 basidiomes. The species is large and easily seen when present. There are estimated to be up to 100 sites each with up to 25 mature individuals. This gives a total maximum population estimate of 2,500 mature individuals. The Atlantic Forest holds the largest urban centres in Brazil, housing more than 70% of the Brazilian population, thus urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural expansion have led to high loss and fragmentation of this domain. There has been a habitat decline of Atlantic Forest of over 72% by the year 2020 (Rezende et al. 2018). Considering declines of this habitat within the last three generations (50 years) of this species, we precautionarily suspect that there has been a habitat loss of area and habitat quality of at least 26% and that this also equates to a population decline of at least 26% within this timeframe. The population decline was estimated in light of extension loss of suitable habitat (da Silva et al. 2020) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund and Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015).
Population Trend: decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
is an ectomycorrhizal species growing solitary to gregarious in the soil in large forest tracks that are part of urban forests. All known records were growing at elevations of more than 500 metres. Although the genus is known as ectomycorrhizal, little is known about the symbiotic plants in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and host association for this species is unknown.
Even though the Atlantic Forest is considered a global hotspot and a priority area for conservation (Myers et al.
2000), it suffers from constant threats because it is located in urbanized areas. Most forest remnants are smaller than 100 ha and are isolated from each other separated by degraded areas, urban areas, pasture, agriculture and forestry. This species occurs in preserved fragments of Atlantic Forest within environmental protection areas, however, these can be considered urban forests as they are located in the middle of large cities and policies and laws are not always strongly enforced. These areas are open for recreational activities, tourism, and further development.
Required conservation actions primarily includes effective management and maintenance of the protected areas where the species is found, along with further development of conservation plans. Increased monitoring at the limits of protected areas should be conducted in order to prevent illegal use and occupancy. Also, more surveys and below-ground studies are necessary to identify its plant symbiont and better understand this species' distribution patterns and habitat requirements.
Use and Trade
There is no known use/trade of this species.
Source and Citation
de Andrade Borges, M.E., Neves, M.A., Duque Barbosa, J.A., Kossmann, T., Martins da Cunha, K., Costa-Rezende, D.H., Santos Ferreira da Cruz, R.H. & Drechsler-Santos, E.R. 2021. Lactifluus marielleae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T209595360A209596485. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-3.RLTS.T209595360A209596485.en
.Accessed on 20 December 2021