• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae G. Coelho, Sulzbacher, Grebenc & Cortez

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Scientific name
Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae
G. Coelho, Sulzbacher, Grebenc & Cortez
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Category
VU VU C1_2a(ii)
Proposed by
Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira
Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes


Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae is an endemic species from Brazil, occurring in fragments of Atlantic Forest in the Southern region. It is a rare species, with only a few records from three different sites. The current total population is estimated at 3,600-5,400 mature individuals, in one subpopulation. Based on the habitat decline within the area, we suspect a population decline around 10% in the last three generations (20 years). Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae is assessed as Vulnerable VU C1+2a(ii).

Taxonomic notes

Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae was proposed as a new species by G. Coelho, Sulzbacher, Grebenc & Cortez in 2020 (Melanda et al., 2020). Synonyms for the species are not known. Specimens from Brazil were previously erroneously identified as Blumenavia angolensis (Welw. & Curr.) Dring, an African species (Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2014; 2019).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae is a rare, endemic species from Southern Brazil, occurring in some fragments of Atlantic Forest, one of the Earth’s biodiversity hotspots with high levels of diversity and endemism.

Geographic range

Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae is known from well preserved fragments of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil (Araucaria Mixed Forest and Dense Ombrophilous Forest). The species was first recorded from the State of Paraná and, some years later, it was collected in the State of Santa Catarina (Meijer, 2006; Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2014; Melanda et al., 2020). Later, four specimens were collected in the same locality (São Francisco de Paula) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2014; Melanda et al., 2020). The species is expected to occur in fragments of subtropical Araucaria Mixed Forest and Dense Ombrophilous Forest in Southern Brazil.

Population and Trends

There are seven collections of the species from three different sites. It is a rarely found species, and it is expected to occur along the subtropical Araucaria Mixed Forest and Dense Ombrophilous Forest, with occurrences up to 200-300 additional potential sites. Its population is estimated ca. 3,600-5,400 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation.
The Atlantic Forest has been deforested over decades, and the remaining fragments are suffering from biomass and biodiversity erosion. The Atlantic Forest is one of the most fragmented tropical/subtropical forests in the world, and only around 28% percent of the original forest in Brazil is left, much of it in small, unconnected fragments (Rezende et al., 2018).
Population decline was estimated in light of extensive loss of suitable habitat (Rezende et al., 2018) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson, 2003; Haddad et al., 2015). Based on this information, we precautionarily assume there has been a habitat loss of at least 10% within the past three generations (20 years) and that this also equates to a population decline of the fungus of at least 10% or more within this timeframe.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae is characterized as a solitary species occurring in preserved fragments of the subtropical Atlantic Forest (Araucaria Mixed Forest and Dense Ombrophilous Forest). It is saprotrophic and grows on decaying wood and litter. The species is not difficult to recognize in the field, being highly detectable since its white basidiomes contrast with the litterfall (Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2014). Since the species occurs on wood debris or litterfall, we estimate that three generations = 20 years.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest


The extraction of timber, intensive land use including tourism, urban expansion, industrialization and fuelwood harvesting are some of the reasons for deforestation in the Atlantic Forest. Only 28% of its natural coverage remains, largely composed of small forest fragments and secondary forests (Tabarelli et al., 2010; Rezende et al., 2018). Changing temperature and rainfall is causing habitat shifts and alteration. These factors are the biggest threat to the Blumenavia crucis-hellenicae, impacting directly on its habitat and life.

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Habitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

The main action to preserve the species is the protection of its habitat and creation of new conservation areas to harbor the probable microhabitats to which the Atlantic Forest may be restricted in the future. The preservation of pristine forests could be critical for the maintenance of this species, since it has only been found in preserved areas. Also, forest protection policies must be taken to assure that the protected Atlantic Forest areas reach a mature state.

Site/area protectionSite/area managementAwareness & communicationsPolicies and regulations

Research needed

More studies are necessary to better understand the species distribution and ecology and population trends.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

None known.



Berglund H, Jonsson BG. 2003. Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biological Conservation 112(3): 319–328.

Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J et al. 2015. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 1: e1500052.

Meijer AAR. 2006. Preliminary list of the macromycetes from the Brazilian state of Paraná. Boletim do Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba 68: 1–55.

Melanda GCS, Accioly T, Ferreira RJ, Rodrigues ACM, Cabral TS, Coelho G, et al. 2020. Diversity trapped in cages: Revision of Blumenavia Möller (Clathraceae, Basidiomycota) reveals three hidden species. PLoS ONE 15(5): e0232467.

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, Joly CA, Metzger JP, Strassburg BBN, Tabarelli M, Fonesca GA, Mittermeier RA. 2018. From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in ecology and conservation 16: 208–214.

Tabarelli M, Aguiar AV, Ribeiro MC, Metzger JP, Peres CA. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation 143(10): 2328–2340.

Trierveiler-Pereira L, Alves CR, Silveira RMB. 2014. The genus Blumenavia (Clathraceae, Phallales). Mycosphere 5(3): 496–501.

Trierveiler-Pereira L, Meijer AAR, Silveira RMB. 2019. Phallales (Agaricomycetes, Fungi) from Southern Brazil. Studies in Fungi 4(1): 162–184.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted