• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Lycoperdon sulcatostomum (C.R. Alves & Cortez) Baseia, Alfredo & M.P. Martín

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Scientific name
Lycoperdon sulcatostomum
(C.R. Alves & Cortez) Baseia, Alfredo & M.P. Martín
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira
Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos
Comments etc.
Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Lycoperdon sulcatostomum (C.R. Alves & Cortez) Baseia, Alfredo & M.P. Martín was first described as Morganella sulcatostoma C.R. Alves & Cortez (Alves & Cortez, 2013) and later transferred to the genus Lycoperdon (Alfredo et al. 2017). Synonyms for the species are not known.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

It is an endemic species from Brazil, with a restricted distribution in a threatened environment (areas of Atlantic Rainforest from Southern Brazil).

This species is known from remnants of the Atlantic Forest from Southern Brazil. There are records of Lycoperdon sulcatostomum from only three sites, with a total population estimate around 8,100 mature individuals, in one subpopulation. Based on the severe habitat decline within the area, we suspect a population decline around at least 10% in the last three generations (20 years). It is, therefore, assessed as Vulnerable VU C1+2a(ii).

Geographic range

Lycoperdon sulcatostomum is currently known from the Atlantic Forest from Southern Brazil. It is only known from 3 sites, from Paraná, in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (6 collections) and Santa Catarina, Dense Ombrophilous Forest lowlands (3 collections) (speciesLink, 2021).
The diversity of gasteroid fungi is well investigated in Southern Brazil, São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) and Northern Brazil, reinforcing that this species is rare (or restricted to some remanscent fragments of Atlantic Forest). Since it was found in the National Park of Foz do Iguaçu, it is also likely that it occurs in Argentina (Misiones) and maybe Paraguay.

Population and Trends

There are nine known collections of the species deposited in fungaria. This is a species with medium detectability - basidiomes are light-colored (contrasting with rotten wood and forest litterfall), but small (around 1 cm).  Basidiomes could be solitary (one collection) or gregarious (most collections are composed of three to five basidiomes).
The species is known from three sites and it is expected to occur in 300 additional potential sites (Atlantic Forest from Southern Brazil). This gives a total population estimate around 8,100 mature individuals [(9 collections/3 known sites)*3 multiplied factor*2 ramets* 300 potential sites), restricted to one subpopulation.
The Atlantic Forest has been deforested over decades, and the remaining fragments are suffering from biomass and biodiversity erosion. The Atlantic Forest is one of the most fragmented tropical/subtropical forests in the world, and only around 28% percent of the original forest in Brazil is left, much of it in small, unconnected fragments (Rezende et al., 2018).
Population decline was estimated in light of extensive loss of suitable habitat (Rezende et al., 2018) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson, 2003; Haddad et al., 2015). Based on this information, we precautionarily assume there has been a habitat loss of at least 10% within the past three generations (20 years) and that this also equates to a population decline of the fungus of at least 10% within this timeframe.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Lycoperdon sulcatostomum is a saprotrophic species and grows, usually gregarious, on dead plant debris. The holotype was collected on debris of Syagrus romanzoffianum (palm tree) but the species is also found on rotten hardwood and fallen branches. Its distribution is restricted to the now fragmented and scattered Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil. Since the species occurs on rotten wood, but especially on small pieces of wood, we estimate that three generations = 20 years.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest


The Atlantic Forest as a whole suffers for decades with deforestation through the extraction of timber, intensive land use, urban expansion, industrialization and fuelwood harvesting; as well as tourism development, mining, roads infrastructure and introduction of alien species, such as Eucalyptus and Pinus spp. Only 28% of its natural coverage remains, largely composed of small forest fragments and secondary forests (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018). In the type locality (Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest), the main problems for the fragments preservation are: agricultural expansion and pasture area.

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

The main action to preserve the species is the protection of its habitat and creation of new conservation areas to harbor the probable microhabitats to which the Atlantic Forest may be restricted in the future. Also, measures must be taken to assure that the protected Atlantic Forest areas reach a mature state.

Site/area protectionSite/area managementAwareness & communicationsPolicies and regulations

Research needed

It is interesting to investigate if the species also occurs in Argentina and Paraguay (adjacent countries from the type locality), as well as other Atlantic Forest fragments in Southern Brazil.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

None known.



Alves CR, Cortez VG. 2013. Morganella sulcatostoma sp. nov. (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) from Paraná State, Brazil. Nova Hedwigia 96(3–4): 409–417.

Alfredo DS, Baseia IG, Accioly T, Silva BDB, Moura MP, Marinho P, Martín MP. 2017. Revision of species previously reported from Brazil under Morganella. Mycological Progress 16: 1–21.

Berglund H, Jonsson BG. 2003. Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biological Conservation 112(3): 319–328.

Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J et al. 2015. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 1: e1500052.

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, Joly CA, Metzger JP, Strassburg BBN, Tabarelli M, Fonesca GA, Mittermeier RA. 2018. From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in ecology and conservation 16: 208–214.

SpeciesLink. 2021. Available at: https://specieslink.net/. (Accessed: 29 September 2021).

Tabarelli M, Aguiar AV, Ribeiro MC, Metzger JP, Peres C.A. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation 143(10): 2328–2340.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted