• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Gloeocantharellus aculeatus Linhares, P.P. Daniëls & M.A. Neves

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Scientific name
Gloeocantharellus aculeatus
Linhares, P.P. Daniëls & M.A. Neves
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
Maria Eduarda de Andrade Borges
Comments etc.
Maria Eduarda de Andrade Borges

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Gloeocantharellus aculeatus Linhares, P.P. Daniëls & M.A. Neves, in Linhares, Reck, Daniëls & Neves, Phytotaxa 268(3): 196 (2016).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species is known from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. It is estimated that the species is distributed along the Atlantic Forest from south to southeastern Brazil. As the species is conspicuous but has only been found very few times, even in sites that are frequently sampled, Gloeocantharellus aculeatus is considered a rare species. The total population is estimated at no more than 9,000 mature individuals in one subpopulation. Based on the severe habitat loss of area and habitat quality we suspect a population decline of around 26% within the last three generations (50 years). It is assessed as Vulnerable.
VU C1+2a(ii)

Geographic range

This species is known from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, where it was collected in two sites: one in southern Brazil, in Santa Catarina State (Pântano do Sul, Lagoinha do Leste Municipal Park trail) and one in southeastern Brazil, in Espírito Santo (Santa Teresa, Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve). It probably grows along the forest in between the two sites.

Population and Trends

This species occurs in preserved fragments of Atlantic Forest. Gloeocantharellus aculeatus is a conspicuous species with a remarkably vibrant color. There are six known collections of the species, one from Santa Catarina state (Linhares et al., 2016) and five from Espírito Santo state (speciesLink, 2021). Since the species is conspicuous, and has only been found a few times, even in sites like Lagoinha do Leste Municipal Park that is frequently sampled, Gloeocantharellus aculeatus is considered a rare species.

This is a remarkable species known from two sites with an average of 3 records for each one. It is estimated that the species is distributed along the Atlantic Forest from the south to southeastern Brazil. Northeastern Brazil is a well sampled region, considering the large presence of researchers collecting in the region, and there are no records of the species, so we believe that Gloeocantharellus aculeatus is not distributed in this region.

Considering that some collections had 2 basidiomes and others had 10 basidiomes, 5 ramets were used to calculate the number of mature individuals. Regarding the detectability and the putative rarity of the species we estimate that each site could hold twice the number of individuals from the known records (per site) in 300 possible occurrence sites. Total population is estimated at up to 9000 mature individuals.

The Atlantic Forest holds the largest urban centers in Brazil, housing more than 70% of the Brazilian population, thus urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural expansion have led to high loss and fragmentation of this forest. There has been a habitat decline of Atlantic Forest of over 72% by the year 2020 (Rezende et al. 2018). Considering declines of this habitat within the last three generations (50 years) of this species, we precautionarily project there has been a habitat loss of area and habitat quality of at least 26% and that this also equates to a population decline of at least 26% within this timeframe. Population decline was estimated in light of extension loss of suitable habitat (da Silva et al. 2020) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015).

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

This is a possibly ectomycorrhizal species growing on the forest floor. It is found growing solitarily to scattered, sometimes forming fairy rings.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest


The Atlantic Forest is considered a global hotspot and therefore a priority area for conservation (Myers et al., 2000). There has been a habitat decline of Atlantic Forest of over 72% by the year 2020 (Rezende et al. 2018), and most forest remnants are smaller than 100 ha and are isolated from each other (Ribeiro et al., 2009) permeated by degraded areas, urban areas, pasture, agriculture, forestry. Comparing the period 2017-2018 with 2018-2019 there was an increase of about 27% of deforestation in the Atlantic Forest remnants (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 2020).

The site in Santa Catarina is a Municipal Park within environmental protection areas, but it is open for recreational activities and tourism, in addition to being constantly threatened by illegal residential construction. The site in Espírito Santo is a Biological Reserve, it is an area of ​​well-preserved forest, open for visitation and ecological trails.

Housing & urban areasUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activities

Conservation Actions

Required conservation actions include mainly the management and maintenance of the protected areas where the species is found, along with developing conservation plans.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area managementNational levelSub-national level

Research needed

Due to the disjunct distribution of taxon more samplings are required to better understand its distribution patterns. The genus is considered possibly ectomycorrhizal, so studies to understand its trophic mode are needed and studies to know the possible symbiotic plants.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There is no known use/trade of this species.


Berglund, H. and Jonsson, B. G. 2003. Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biological Conservation 112 (3): 319-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00329-4

Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 1-16.

Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. 2020. Atlas dos remanescentes florestais da Mata Atlântica - Período 2018-2019. São Paulo. 61 p. Available at: http://mapas.sosma.org.br/site_media/download/2020_Atlas_Mata_Atlantica_2018-2019_relatorio_tecnico_final.pdf. (Accessed: 18 September 2021).

Haddad, N. M.; Brudvig, L. A.; Clobert, G.; Davies, K. F.; Gonzales, A.; Holt, R. D.; Lovejoy, T. E.; Sexton, J. O.; Austin, M. P.; Collins, C. D.; Cook, W. M.; Damschen, E. I.; Ewers, R. M.; Foster, B. L.; Jenkins, C. N.; King, A. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Levey, D. J.; Margules, C. R.; Melbourne, B. A.; Nicholls, A. O.; Orrock, J. L.; Song, D. X.; and Townshend, J. R. 2015. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 1 (2). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500052

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-2. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 September 2021).

Linhares, F. T. F.; Reck, M. A.; Daniëls, P. P.; and Neves, M. A. 2016. Gloeocantharellus aculeatus (Gomphaceae), a new neotropical species in the gomphoid-phalloid clade. Phytotaxa 268(3): 193-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.268.3.3.

Myers, N.; Mittermeier, R.; Mittermeier, C.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; and Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858. https://doi.org/10.1038/35002501

Rezende, C. L.; Scarano, F. R.; Assad, E. D.; Joly, C. A.; Metzger, J. P.; Strassburg, B. B. N.; Tabarelli, M.; Fonseca, G. A.; and Mittermeier, R. A. 2018. From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 16 (4): 208-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.002

Ribeiro, M. C.; Metzger, J. P.; Martensen, A. C.; Ponzoni, F. J.; and Hirota, M. M. 2009. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: How much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 142: 1141-1153.

da Silva, R. F. B.; Millington, J. D. A.; Moran, E. F.; Batistella, M.; and Liu, J. 2020. Three decades of land-use and land-cover change in mountain regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Landscape and Urban Planning 204: 103948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103948

speciesLink. 2021. Available at: https://specieslink.net/. (Accessed: 17 September 2021).

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted