• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii Baltazar, Gorjón & Rajchenb.

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Scientific name
Acanthocorticium brueggemannii
Author
Baltazar, Gorjón & Rajchenb.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Incertae sedis
Assessment status
Proposed
Proposed by
Juliano M. Baltazar
Comments etc.
Juliano M. Baltazar, Francisco Calaça, Sara Karla de A. A. Carvalho, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii was described by Baltazar et al. (2015) as a new genus and species. It has no synonyms. Molecular evidence places the species among cyphelloid fungi within Agaricales, which could make this species important to understand several questions regarding the evolution of Agaricomycetes.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is a corticioid species only known from its type locality. It has a small population with a restricted distribution in a threatened area.

RED LIST JUSTIFICATION
Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is currently known from two specimens collected at the same site in the type locality. Its occurrence is expected to be limited to a restricted area within the Dense Ombrophilous Forest, a highly threatened ecosystem. The species is assessed as Vulnerable under C1+2a(i,ii); D1.


Geographic range

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is only known from two collections at the same trail in the same site, one in September, 2010 and another in March, 2012. This site is located in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, at the border of a large Conservation Area. It is expected to occur along the Dense Ombrophilous Forest in the State of Santa Catarina. This restricted distribution is expected because the adjacent States of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná are well studied regarding their corticioid funga, besides the State of São Paulo.


Population and Trends

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is considered to have a distribution restricted to the Subtropical Ombrophilous Dense Forest in the State of Santa Catarina. Despite its low detectability, the potential area of occurrence has been intensively sampled by experts and collaborators, with only two specimens being found in a single locality. For these reasons the species is considered to be rare, with up to 50 potential sites. Total population is estimated at no more than 1,000 mature individuals [(2 collections/1 known site) * 5 multiplied factor * 2 ramets * 50 potential sites], distributed in a single subpopulation. The species population was probably larger in the past but the number of sites may have decreased considerably. The current cover of Atlantic Forest is reduced to 28% of its original extension, and most of the remaining cover is drastically fragmented (Rezende et al. 2018). The habitat decline in the Atlantic Forest is estimated at 7.5% in the last 30 years (Bicudo da Silva et al. 2020), and considering the annual average loss within this time lapse it is possible to estimate an habitat loss of 7.5% in the next 30 years. Considering that habitat loss is accompanied by a major loss in habitat quality (Joly et al. 2014), and a population change of 30 years (= three generations) for the species, the population decline is estimated at 15% in the last 30 years. A population decline of 15% is also expected for the next 30 years.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii occurs in the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Atlantic Forest Biome) in the State of Santa Catarina. The species is saprotrophic and its basidiomes grow on the lower side of fallen trunks of hardwoods lying on the forest ground. The only known site of occurrence is less than 20 km distant from the sea, but about 450 m asl. The site is within the Dense Ombrophilous Forest, a typical vegetation type from the Coastal zone of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Biome.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

The main threat to A. brueggemannii is loss of habitat. Its occurrence is expected to be restricted to the Coastal Zone of the State of Santa Catarina. About 60% of the Brazilian population is concentrated in the Coastal Zone (Rezende et al. 2018). The urbanization of the Brazilian Coastal Zone is the most important factor for loss of habitat. There is also an expansion of silvicultural areas with exotic tree species. Pinus spp. are one of the most cultivated trees, and there is no evidence that A. brueggemannii can grow on other woods than hardwoods. Climate change is also an important threat since it can promote important changes in the environment of the species.

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasTourism & recreation areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingScale Unknown/UnrecordedSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

The main action is to preserve the Atlantic Forest Biome, especially the Dense Ombrophilous Forest, keeping the protection of Conservation Areas, creation of new ones, and promoting the restoration of habitats whenever possible. The preservation of pristine forests could be critical for the maintenance of this species, since it occurs in large fallen hardwood logs. The application of current legislation would be very important to reach these goals. Furthermore, preventing the urbanization process is also very important to mitigate the loss of habitat.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionInvasive/problematic species controlHabitat & natural process restorationPolicies and regulations

Research needed

More studies are needed to find more specimens of this species and possibly new sites of occurrence. Also, it is important to understand the potential substrata for that species considering that several natural areas have been replaced by plantations of exotic trees.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There are no reported uses and trades.

Unknown

Bibliography

Baltazar JM, Gorjón SP, Pildain MB, et al (2015) Acanthocorticium brueggemannii, a new corticioid genus and species related to cyphelloid fungi in the euagarics clade (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Botany 93:453–463. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2015-0053

Bicudo da Silva RF, Millington JDA, Moran EF, et al (2020) Three decades of land-use and land-cover change in mountain regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Landsc Urban Plan 204:103948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103948

Joly CA, Metzger JP, Tabarelli M (2014) Experiences from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Ecological findings and conservation initiatives. New Phytol 204:459–473. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12989

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, et al (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspect Ecol Conserv 16:208–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PECON.2018.10.002


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted