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  • Under Assessment
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Calopadia saxicola Gumboski

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Scientific name
Calopadia saxicola
Author
Gumboski
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Lichens
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Lecanoromycetes
Order
Lecanorales
Family
Byssolomataceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
CR C2a(ii)
Proposed by
Emerson Luiz Gumboski
Assessors
Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Emerson Luiz Gumboski, Thiago Kossmann, Adriano Spielmann
Reviewers
Jessica Allen

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Calopadia saxicola Gumboski, Lichenologist 47(2): 137 (2015)
The species is very different from other Calopadia by the corticated and well-developed thalli, apothecia pattern and ascospores type, and mainly because it is one of the rare species of the genus that occur on rocks (in this case, exclusively on rocks).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Calopadia saxicola is known only from two sites of rocky seashores in Southern Brazil (c. 65km apart from each other), growing directly on shaded rocks near vegetated zones. Several other rocky shores were studied in Southern Brazil, however, the species was not found. Based on the sampling efforts and the scarcity of appropriate habitat a population size of up to 240 is estimated, distributed in one subpopulation. Its calculated AOO is of 40km². The species habitat is affected by water pollution and oil spills, as well as impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rises. Other threats include trampling and other human activities by tourists and the growing coastal population.  Given the small population size, and the ongoing decline, it is classified in Critically Endangered C2a(ii)


Geographic range

Calopadia saxicola is known only from rocky seashores in Southern Brazil (two localities c. 65km apart from each other), growing directly on shaded rocks near vegetated zones (Gumboski 2015).
Brazil: Santa Catarina State: Municipality of Penha, north of Praia Vermelha; Municipality of São Francisco do Sul, Morro da Enseada


Population and Trends

Calopadia saxicola is currently known only from two sites in the coast of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. It grows exclusively in shaded rocks near vegetation in rocky seashores. Several other rocky shores were studied (e.g., Gumboski & Eliasaro 2012a,b, c, Aptroot et al. 2017; Gerlach & Eliasaro 2012, 2014a,b) in Southern Brazil, however, the species was not found in other locations either north or south of the indicated locations. Most of the rocky shores between the two known sites have been surveyed, however, no other records of C. saxicola have been found. Nothing ‘similar’ to Calopadia saxicola was also recorded in past studies in the coastal region, which was expected given the specificity of the substrate and the environment in which the species occurs.
Given the sampling effort and the scarcity of appropriate habitat, the species is likely extremely rare and with a very restricted distribution. Total population is estimated at no more than 240 mature individuals, distributed in up to 10 potential sites along the coast of Santa Catarina state.
Population calculation: 12/2 = 6 * 2 * 2 (ramets) * 10 (potential sites) = 240
Calopadia saxicola is a long-lived, slow-growing species. Generation length was estimated at 30 years.
Based on the species potential distribution of up to 10 potential sites, and the nature of rocky shores, a disjunct habitat where the species grow in a concentrated manner, each potential site is equivalent to one cell of occurrence. Total Area of Occupancy is calculated at up to 40km².
AOO at known points is 4km².

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Calopadia saxicola is known only from two localities in coastal Southern Brazil, growing on rocky shores, directly on shaded rocks near vegetated zones (restinga vegetation) and protected from the direct wave splash (Gumboski, 2015). It’s easily to find the species in the field because it’s the unique from Southern Brazilian rocky shores that produces campylidia.

Rocky Shoreline

Threats

Rocky shores are vulnerable to many types of human activities. As coastal population continues to grow, more people visit, use, and exploit rocky shores from Southern Brazil.
One of the most dangerous threats are oil spills, which pose a significant threat to the health and balance of life on rocky shores, and unfortunately are not uncommon, for example, to São Francisco do Sul Municipality (e.g., Redação NSC, 2011; Mapa De Conflitos, 2021).
Other potential threats to the organisms that living in rocky shores are pollution (water from streams and culverts that drains onto rocky shores often bring contaminants) and climate change (LIMPETS, 2021). As the rocky shores lie at the land and sea interface, they are expected to be strongly influenced by the climate change, mainly by the rise in sea level, which should cause a profound change in the communities present in the coastal regions in the medium and long term (Pereira & Soares-Gomes, 2009).

Oil spillsHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Actions to preserve this species revolve around the preservation of its habitat. The habitat where the species is found is considered a Permanent Preservation Area by the Brazilian legislation. Greater care and inspection regarding possible oil spills are also indicated, as well as updating emergency programs to contain any spills/strandings of ship/disasters. Also, appropriate sewage treatment must be ensured to prevent water pollution and contamination by heavy metals.

Site/area protection

Research needed

More research is needed to better understand the species distribution and coverage in the region of occurrence, as well as an extensive survey through the coastal areas with similar habitat in Southern Brazil, in search for other potential areas of occurrence.

Population size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade

There is no known use/trade of this species.

Unknown

Bibliography

Aptroot, A. ; Gumboski, E. L. ; Cáceres, M.E.S. . Ocean view: a first assessment of the littoral, crustose lichen biota of south Brazil. LICHENOLOGIST, v. 49, p. 597-605, 2017.
Gerlach, A. C. L.; Eliasaro, S. . Espécies de Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) ciliadas e sem máculas reticulares em costões rochosos dos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, Brasil. HOEHNEA (SÃO PAULO), v. 41, p. 321-336, 2014.
Gerlach, A. C. L.; Eliasaro, S. . Parmotrema marcellii, a new species of Parmeliaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) from Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Botany, v. 37, p. 152-156, 2014.
Gerlach, A. C. L.; Eliasaro, S. . Liquens parmelioides eciliados (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) em costões rochosos dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica, v. 26, p. 570-584, 2012.
Gumboski, E. L.. Calopadia saxicola (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota), a new saxicolous species growing on rocky sea shores in southern Brazil. LICHENOLOGIST, v. 47, p. 137-141, 2015.
Gumboski, E. L. & Eliasaro, S. Peterjamesia circumscripta (Leight.) D. Hawksw. (Roccellaceae: Ascomycota): First record to continental South America. CHECK LIST, JOURNAL OF SPICIES LIST AND DISTRIBUTION, v. 8, p. 267, 2012.
Gumboski, E. L. & Eliasaro, S. Espécies de Cladonia P. Browne (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota) dos Supergrupos Cocciferae, Crustaceae e Perviae em restingas e costões rochosos dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasílica (Impresso), v. 26, p. 619-631, 2012.
Gumboski, E. L. & Eliasaro, S. Espécies de Cladonia P. Browne (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota) do Supergrupo Cladonia em restingas e costões rochosos dos Estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Hoehnea (São Paulo), v. 39, p. 315-337, 2012.
Limpets – Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students. 2021. the Rocky Intertidal:  fact Sheet. Available at: chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=https://limpets.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/RockyIntertidalFS_Aug2011.pdf&clen=1944444&chunk=true. Accessed in October 19, 2021.
Mapa de Conflito. 2021. SC – Comunidades tradicionais e meio ambiente ainda sofrem com derramamento de óleo. Available at: http://mapadeconflitos.ensp.fiocruz.br/conflito/sc-comunidades-tradicionais-e-meio-ambiente-ainda-sofrem-com-derramamento-de-oleo/#contexto_ampliado. Accessed in October 19, 2021.
Pereira, R.C. & Soares-Gomes, A. 2009. Biologia Marinha. 2nd Edition. Editora Interciência. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. ISBN: 9788571932135. 656 p.
Redação NSC. 2011. Óleo mancha a baía da Babitonga em São Francisco do Sul. Available at: https://www.nsctotal.com.br/noticias/oleo-mancha-a-baia-da-babitonga-em-sao-francisco-do-sul. Accessed in October 19, 2021.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted