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  • Under Assessment
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Arrasia rostrata Bernicchia, Gorjón & Nakasone

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Scientific name
Arrasia rostrata
Author
Bernicchia, Gorjón & Nakasone
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Incertae sedis
Order
Incertae sedis
Family
Incertae sedis
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
CR D1
Proposed by
Claudia Perini
Assessors
A. Martyn Ainsworth, Susana C. Gonçalves, Claudia Perini, Tatyana Svetasheva
Editors
Claudia Perini
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Michael Krikorev, James Westrip

Assessment Notes

Justification

This small corticioid fungus was found on trunks and old branches of living old growth trees of Juniperus phoenicea in a valley in Sardinia (Italy). Only for a short period it was observed also on Cupressus sempervirens in central Italy (Tuscany). Both woody plant species are common in the mediterranean area the fungal species result to be very rare; it is frequently observed in association with Echinodontium ryvardenii but not always, a species that was assesset as EN. Today it is only present at the type collection site in Sardinia and the extinction risk is very high. It can be assessed as critically endangered with a very small population size less than 50 mature individuals


Taxonomic notes

Ten years ago (2011) this species belonging also to a new genus was described from the Lanaittu valley on the island Sardinia.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This unusual small, white and soft corticoid fungus with distinctive microscopic characteristic was found various times on trunks and old branches of living Juniperus phoenicea in a valley in Sardinia (Italy). Only for a short period it was observed also on Cupressus sempervirens in central Italy (Tuscany). Even if both woody plant species are common in the mediterranean area the fungal species result to be very rare and the extinction risk is very high. Today it is only present at the type collection site in Sardinia. It can be assessed as critically endangered with a very small population size less than 50 mature individuals. Mycologists are invited to look for new findings of Arrasia rostrata!


Geographic range

Nearly ten years ago (2011) this species belonging also to a new genus was described from the Lanaittu valley on the island Sardinia (Italy).
Finally years later (2014) it was observed as few small spots also on a living but not with a healthy aspect Cupressus sempervirens in natural cupress forest, Cipresseta di Sant’Agnese (Siena, Tuscany, Italy).


Population and Trends

There are about 12-14 observations in one site on two Juniperus phoenicea trees in Sardinia, and about 5-6 collections in one site on one Cupressus sempervirens in Tuscany (but this does not longer exist). This species resulted to be limited to Juniperus and to island Sardinia (Italy), finally it was observed on Cupressus sempervirens on the italian penisola (Tuscany), but only for a short time and than dissapared. Even if both woody plant species are common in the mediterranean area, but seldom as old growth trees, the fungal species result to be very rare and the extinction risk is very high.
Today it is only present at the type collection site, and while it has been observed in similar habitat to Echinodontium ryvardenii, surveys for this latter species rarely find A. rostrata. Being known from only two trees, currently, with each containing approximately 2 mature individuals (see Dahlberg and Mueller 2011), this could give a total global population size of only 4 mature individuals. Even taking into account potential additional sites that have not been found yet, this is an extremely rare species, and the total population size could still number <50 mature individuals.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Ten years ago (2011) this species belonging also to a new genus was described from the Lanaittu valley on the island Sardinia. It’s an unusual small, white and soft corticioid fungus with distinctive large basidiospores developing a characteristic distal refractive rostrum, from here the name “rostrata”. In the same locality various observations are made on trunks and old branches of living old Juniperus phoenicea, often observed growing near to Echinodontium ryvardenii. This species resulted to be limited to Juniperus and to Sardinia, finally years later (2014) it was observed as few small spots also on a living but not with a healthy aspect Cupressus sempervirens in central Italy (Tuscany). The species seems to be linked principally to the bark of old Juniperus phoenicea but also found on an old and ill Cupressus sempervirens.

Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation

Threats

Even if both woody plant species are common in the mediterranean area the fungal species result to be very rare, disappeared on Cupressus and the extinction risk is very high. The species is not easy to detect, frequently in association with Echinodontium ryvardenii much easier ti observe, and the most remarkable feature are its large, beaked basidiospores, so hopefully it is growing somewhere else and has not been detected. Anyway old growth trees of Juniper and Cupressus are rare, often crash down or are harvested and used by people and need protection itshelf. These are frequently cut for many purposes such as firewood and for making items such as fireplaces and sheepfolds.

Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded

Conservation Actions

Protect old growth Juniper and Cupressus communities.

Site/area protection

Research needed

An accurate search is needed to clarify the distribution in the Med. region and old growth forests or trees of Juniper and Cupressus where hopefully the species is still present.

Population size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

BERNICCHIA A., GORJON S.P., NAKASONE K.K., 2011: Arrasia rostrata (Basidiomycetes), a new corticioid genus and species from Italy. Mycotaxon 118: 257-264.
BERNICCHIA A., FACCHINI M., GORJON S.P., 2015: A new collecting area for Arrasia rostrata in Italy. Micol. Veget. Medit., 30 (1): 57-64. 2015.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted