The total number of mature individuals is estimated not to exceed 5000. Therefore it is classified as Vulnerable under criteria C1.
Callistosporium vinosobrunneum is a distinctive, but small completely dark red-brown mushroom with white spores; it was described in 2011, though it had been detected much earlier. It can be distinguished from the only other Callistosporium species occurring in the same habitats in Hawaii by the consistently dark red-brown fruitbodies.
Callistosporium vinosobrunneum is endemic to Hawaii where it was found in several places on the Big Island, and one on Kauai. It is restricted to Wet Montane Forests in which Metrosideros polymorpha (ʻŌhiʻa) is the dominant tree species. This tree is under immediate threat by ROD, Rapid ʻŌhiʻa Death, a fast spreading deadly disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, so far only restricted to the Big Island of Hawaii. The spread of the pathogen is being monitored and in 3 years time the pathogen has reached the sites where C. vinosobrunneum has been reported. Wet Montane Forest habitat is projected to decline of at least 20% in the next 20 years, based on the spreading of the Ceratocystis wilt ofMetrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the habitat.A second threat is the widening of the Saddle Road on the Big Island; this project will destroy several of the kipukas, the tree islands surrounded by old lava streams, where this species was found.
Callistosporium vinosobrunneum is endemic to Hawaii and known from Big Island (several locations), and Kauai (one location).
Very rare, only known from a couple of sites on two small islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. The species occurs in habitats that are under threat of development and the fast acting newly emerged plant pathogen of the main tree species, Metrosideros polymorpha.
The population size is small, as so far the species is only known from three small sites.
The species is not known from any other place on earth.
TRY TO ADD AN ESTIMATE OF THE POPULATION, AREA OF EXTENT AND SO FORTH HERE.
REASON AND MOTIVATER MORE ABOUT THE TOTAL POPULATION (CONFINED TO A SPECIFIC RARE HABITAT WITH LIMITED DISTRIBUTION IN ADDITION THREATENED AND DECLINING).
Callistosporium vinosobrunneum is a saprotrophic fungus growing on rotten wood (Desjardin & Hemmes, 2011). The species is restricted to Montane Wet Forests, which occur on four islands: Hawai`i, Kaua`i, Maui and Moloka`i at 1200–2200 m on windward aspects that receive rainfall exceeding 2500 mm annually (Desjardin & Hemmes 2011), but the species is only known from two of those four islands.The habitat occurs in small patches (Desjardin & Hemmes 2011), surrounded by non-native vegetation types.
All native Hawaiian vegetation types, including Montane Wet Forests, are under threat by invasion of alien species (Cuddihy & Stone 1990). Montane Wet Forests is home to only 24 native Hawaiian fungi that depend on Metrosideros polymorpha (Desjardin & Hemmes 2011). Habitat destruction is the biggest threat to the occurrence of C. vinosobrunneum and the other species, first of all because of the rapidly spreading disease of the host tree (Metrosideros polymorpha; ʻŌhiʻa), caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata (Keith et al. 2015; Colleage of Tropical Agricultural and Human Resources. 2016.). This fungus kills mature trees. Since it was first detected in the Kuna and Hilo Districts on the Big Island in Hawaii in 2013, it has spread rapidly, threatening all habitats Metrosideros is the dominant tree in. The name of the disease, Rapid ʻŌhiʻa Death, is an indication of its sudden appearance and fast work. In the three years since its first detection it has spread up the volcanoes and has reached the habitats where C. vinosobrunneum occurs.Secondly, habitat destruction of the kipukas, the tree islands in the middle of old lava flows, along the Saddle Road on the Big Island because of widening of the road has been a threat for years. The Saddle Road connects Hilo, Kona and Waimea with the observatory on Mauna Kea, and is the shortest route from Hilo to Kona.
Sanitary actions to restrict the spread of Ceratocystis fimbriata have to be taken immediately, and action to maintain the kipukas along the Saddle Road on the Big Island are needed.
Cause of the infection, spread, identity, life cycle and ecology of Ceratocystis fimbriata have to be further researched.
Ceratocystis-resitant strains of Metrosideros polymorpha have to be developed.
Cuddihy L.W. & C.P. Stone, 1990. Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation. Effects of humans, their activities and introductions. Honolulu, Hawaii: Univ Hawaii Press.
Desjardin, D.E. & D.E. Hemmes, 2011. Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands 9. Five new white-spored species from native montane wet forests. Mycologia 103: 1141-1450.
Keith, L.M., R.F. Hughes, L.S. Sugiyama, W. P. Heller, B.C. Bushe & J.B. Friday. 2015. First Report of Ceratocystis wilt on ʻŌhiʻa. Plant Disease 99: 1276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1293-PDN