• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Podoserpula miranda Ducousso, S. Proust, D. Vigier & Eyssart.

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Scientific name
Podoserpula miranda
Author
Ducousso, S. Proust, D. Vigier & Eyssart.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Amylocorticiaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN Endangered B1, B2a, B2b and D1
Proposed by
Patrick Leonard
Assessors
Patrick Leonard
Editors
Philippe Bourdeau, Marc Ducousso, Christian Laudereau
Contributors
Patrick Leonard, Anne-Marie Maviet

Assessment Notes

Justification

Podoserpula miranda is a distinctive species, easy to identify in the field. Distribution is limited, it is found only in an area located in the south of Grande Terre. A large area from the Col des deux Tétons, to the hydraulic dam of Yate and the botanical reserve of the Pic du Grand Kaori. There is a small outlier population at Bogota.

A peculiarity of Podoserpula Miranda is that it grows exclusively on the base of the trunk of oak gums (Arillastrum gummiferum (Brongn. & Gris) Pancher ex Baill). The habitat is largely unmanaged and undergoing change due to fire.
There have only ever been 12 functional individuals of this fungus found from 6 sites. Using the Dahlberg & Mueller (2011) methodology we estimate that, allowing for known and as yet undiscovered sites, there might be up to 10 sites and a population of up to 60 mature individuals.
This species is assessed as “endangered” on the basis of criteria B1, B2a and B2b with only 6 known sites.(and a potential of 10 sites in an endangered ecosystem and D1 on account of the a very small estimated population of less than 60 mature individuals).


Taxonomic notes

Pilei: growing upward and outward, forming a series of funnel-shaped structures around the elongating axis, with the outer margin remaining long time inrolled; upper surface more or less smooth, cottony-pubescent, dull, very pale pinkish to near white, sometimes developing olivaceous tints around the main axis, soft and flexible, full-grown caps sometimes developing a series of secondary stipe-like outgrowths or initials near their margin.
Caps: strongly decurrent on the main axis and abruptly stopping, densely wrinkled over the entire surface from blunt, radiating and forking veins or ridges (reminiscent of Cantharellus), becoming sometimes more nodulose near the main axis, vividly pinkish lilac
Main axis: finely pruinose to pubescent, subcylindrical, continuous, often bent in the basal part, covered by a whitish tomentum on the lower portion which m ay develop into a limited mycelial mat on contact with the soil humus, solid.
Flesh: soft, fibrous, whitish pink, but developing distinct ochre yellowish to almost ferruginous tints when too old or injured.
Taste: mild.
Smell: of radish.
Spore print: white
Spores: globose, 3.5-5(5.5) μm diam., to subglobose, 3.5-5(5.5) × (3) 3.3-4.6 μm, with firm wall, dextrinoid, cyanophilous, containing one large, hyaline lipid drop, sometimes with yellowish-olivaceous contents.
Notes: It was clearly shown that the New Caledonian specimens are different from Podoserpula on other continents.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Podoserpula miranda is only known from the south of Grande Terre in New Caledonia. With the climatic change, our observations tend to show that during the period of El Niño’s influence, Podoserpula miranda’s growth is very limited or even nil. Moreover the area where we find Podoserpula miranda is very heavily impacted by fire.
The area where Podoserpula miranda grows has suffered many fires in recent years and large areas have burned. In December 2018, part of Bois du Sud burned, the fire was stopped 10 meters from an Arillastrum gummiferum on which Podoserpula miranda grows.


Geographic range


Population and Trends

There has been no system of formally recording fungi in New Caledonia in the past. Le Rat made many fungal collections between 1900 and 1910 some of which were then described and published by Patouillard.  Roger Heim published some further species in the 1930s. Horak visited New Caledonia during the 1970s and published several papers during that decade. It was not until 2009 (?) that a more formal system was established to monitor fungi, following Marc Ducousso’s formation of the Societe Mycologique du Nouvelle Caledonie. Since then some 25,000 fungi have been photographed by members of the SMNC and these form the basis of current records. There was also a formal survey of dry sclerophyll forests in 2010 directed by Ducousso which sets a base line for that forest type. In 2001 a website was established by Endemia NC to provide a record of all New Caledonia’s wildlife. In its early years it concentrated on birds and NC’s rich plant flora. It has recently (2018) started to accumulate fungal records.

Population Trend:


Habitat and Ecology

A peculiarity of Podoserpula Miranda is that it grows exclusively on the base of the trunk of oak gums (Arillastrum gummiferum (Brongn. & Gris) Pancher ex Baill). The habitat is largely unmanaged and undergoing change due to fire.


Threats

Only a very small portion of the original forest cover of New Caledonia remains. Clearing in the past for timber and to create grazing and agricultural land have destroyed much of the forest cover. Wild fires and open cast mining have also accounted for extensive losses. What remains is now partially protected by Botanical Reserves and National Parks. There is however virtually no active management to encourage regeneration or to discourage invasive species.
Pigs are very numerous throughout New Caledonia’s forests. Thought to be the the legacy of Captain Cook’s visit in 1774. The gift of 12 Rusa deer to the Governor of New Caledonia in 1862 has resulted a large current population; estimates range from 400,000 to 1,000,000. There are also established populations of feral cattle and horses in parts of New Caledonia. All these introduced species cause damage to native forests, in particular through selective grazing which impedes regeneration,  changes species composition and through nutrient enrichment and digging (pigs) and compaction (horses and cattle).


Conservation Actions

Recognition of the role of fungi in the ecology of forests by including references in management plans would be helpful. More effective control of feral animals would be beneficial.


Research needed


Use and Trade


Bibliography

Atlas de la Nouvelle Caledonie (1983). Auteur?  Imprimerie H. Dridé
Buyck B. , Duhem B. , Eyssartier G. & Ducousso M. (2012) Podoserpula miranda sp. nov. (Amylocorticiales, Basidiomycota) from New Caledonia. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 33(4): 453-461. 2012.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility: gbif.org
Endemia NC. http://endemia.nc/
http://geoportail.oeil.nc/cartenvironnement/?MapResources=RESEAU_SUIVI

 


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted