• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • DDPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Xylaria poitei (Lév.) Fr.

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Scientific name
Xylaria poitei
Author
(Lév.) Fr.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Sordariomycetes
Order
Xylariales
Family
Xylariaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
DD
Proposed by
Brenda Callan
Assessors
Brenda Callan
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

Data deficient - this fungus has a broad geographical range, yet has been rarely collected (single record) from many of the countries where it has been reported. However, total estimated number of individuals in USA and Brazil where estimation of individuals are possible is around 5000, and estimates for remaining countries are not possible leaving this species data deficient.

Taxonomic notes

Synonymy
Sphaeria poitei Lev.
Xylaria conocephala Berk & Curt.
Xylaria titan Berk. & Curt.
Xylaria hercules Speg.
Xylaria composita C.G. Lloyd
Xylaria morganii C.G. Lloyd
Xylaria ocellata C.G. Lloyd

A strikingly large Xylaria, tan coloured when young, fading to grey, very fleshy, and losing much moisture and size when dried, fruiting on dead wood


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

One of the largest Xylaria species known, some stromata are as tall as 15 cm and several cm thick, with a distinctive tan colouration when immature, this fungus has a broad geographical range, yet has been rarely collected (single record) from many of the countries where it has been reported. However, total estimated number of individuals in USA and Brazil where estimation of individuals are possible is around 5000, and estimates for remaining countries are not possible leaving this species data deficient.


Geographic range

Known from Eastern and Southeastern United States (Florida, Georgia, Washington DC., Pennsylvania, North Carolina), South America, Africa, and Asia, but only rarely collected, with many of the country locations represented by a single collection.


Population and Trends

The fungus has a broad geographical range in subtropical and tropical regions, but the localities within each country where it has been collected are very few, despite the large size of the organism and its association with wood on the ground, which facilitates its detection. There are roughly 52 published herbarium records world-wide, representing 40 different localities. The majority of these collections (80%, including undated CG Lloyd specimens) were made pre-1940.
The following countries have a single published collection record, so understandably the population trends for them are uncertain:
Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Argentina, Belize, Cameroon, Congo, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Angola, Taiwan, South Africa.
The highest number of collections (more than 10 records) are from the Eastern and Southeastern States, with the most found in Florida, around the Gainesville area. There are at least 8 collections reported from Brazil, in Acre, Paraiba and Parana states.  Again, only 2 were recently reported (2014, 2015), the rest were pre-1940. In the United States and Brazil, there might be sufficient records to estimate populations; if sites were fifty-fold higher than currently reported, and individuals likewise 5 times higher, the expected individuals are estimated to be around 5000 for these two countries combined.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

Fruiting on dead wood, associated with the following tree genera/species: Carpinus, Carya, Celtis, Citrus, Cupania, Quercus, Sabal texana, Ulmus.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

Potential threat due to habitat destruction; urbanization in the United States, and agricultural and forestry pressures elsewhere.

Residential & commercial developmentShifting agricultureLogging & wood harvesting

Conservation Actions

Identification of areas where the coarse woody debris habitat could be protected (parks), especially in areas where the fungus has been recently collected, in particular the Gainesville area in Florida, USA.

Site/area protectionEducation & awareness

Research needed

Studies on genetic diversity, given the wide distribution of this species

Population size, distribution & trendsHabitat trends

Bibliography

da Silva Cruz, K. and Cortez, V.G. 2015. Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) in the Parque Estadual de Sao Camilo, Parana, Brazil. Acta Biol. Par, Curitiba 44(3-4) 129-144.
Guzman, G, & Piepenbring. 2011. Los Hongos de Panama. Xalapa: Instituto de Ecologia. 372 p.
Hladki, A.L., & A.I. Romero. 2010. A preliminary account of Xylaria in the Tucuman province, Argentina, with a key to species from the northern provinces. Fungal Diversity 42:79-96.
Ju, Y.-M., Hsieh, H.-M., and Dominick, S. 2016. The Xylaria names proposed by C.G. Lloyd. North American Fungi 11(1) 1-31. Roger
Patil, A., Patil, M.S, and Dangat B.T. 2012. Three giant Ascomycetes (Pyrenomycetes) from Maharashtra, India. Mycosphere 3(3): 353-356. 
Rogers, J.D. 1984. Xylaria cubensis and its anamorph Xylocoremium flabelliforme, Xylaria allantoidea, and Xylaria poitei in continental United States. Mycologia 76(5) 912-923
Rogers, J.D. and Callan, B.E, 1986. Xylaria poitei: stromata, cultural description and structure of conidia and ascospores. Mycotaxon 26: 287-296
San Martin Gonzales, F. and Rogers, J. D. 1989. A preliminary account of Xylaria of Mexico. Mycotaxon 34(2):283-373.
Van der Gucht, k. V. 1995. Illustrations and descriptions of xylariaceous fungi collected in Papua New Guinea. Bulletin Van de National Pantentuin van Belgie 64:219-403.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted