• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • Published

Cortinarius murellensis Cors. Gut., Ballarà, Cadiñanos, Palazón & Mahiques

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Scientific name
Cortinarius murellensis
Author
Cors. Gut., Ballarà, Cadiñanos, Palazón & Mahiques
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Cortinariaceae
Assessment status
Published
Proposed by
Tor Erik Brandrud
Assessors
Tor Erik Brandrud
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Developed and updated version published at IUCN´s Red List update, July 18th 2019.

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Cortinarius murellensis is a strict Mediterranean species, apparently with a rather local distribution, mainly in NE Spain, S France (and once found in E Italy) (Schmidt-Stohn et al. 2016). The species forms mycorrhiza with evergreen Quercus spp, mainly Q. ilicis, but apparently also with Q. coccifera.
It belongs to the rich fungus element of calcareous Quercus ilex forests, where many habitat-specific taxa occur, especially of Cortinarius, subgenus Phlegmacium. 
The Quercus ilex forests and woodlands have been declining e.g. due to transformation into secondary macchia due to land-use, severe forest fires, and die-back of oak due to Phytophtora and other pathogens. Cortinarius murellensis has some of its larger, known populations at higher altitudes of isolated mountains of islands (Mallorca), and these might decline due to climate changes.
Global red-list assessment: The species is estimated to have a total population of 4 000 IUCN-individuals. According to the C criterion (C2 a(i)), the species then becomes red-listed as VU, based on a continuous decline, population size <10 000 individuals and very small/isolated subpopulations.


Geographic range

Cortinarius murellensis has its major populations in a restricted area of western mediterranean region (Schmidt-Stohn et al. 2016). The species is known from a few populations in E Spain (e.g. Morella, from where the species was described), including montane Mallorca, and SW France (Bedarieux-Montpellier). The species is also found once in a montane Quercus ilex forest of the Marche district, Apennines, E Italy (Schmidt-Stohn et al. 2016).


Population and Trends

The species is known from 3 sites/localities in Mallorca, approx. 4-5 sites/localities in NE Spain (Castellón region), a couple of sites/localitites in Languedoc (Bedarieux-Montpellier) in SW France, as well as one locality in the Marche region of the Apennines, E Italy, altogether approx 10, verified/published sites/localities (see Schmidt-Stohn et al. 2016). The real, total number of sites/localities of C. murellensis is here estimated to 200.
This is equivalent to 4 000 individuals according to IUCN standards.
The decline of the calcareous Quercus ilex forests in the evaluation period (last 50 years) is estimated to be in the magnitude of 15-20%. Based on this, the species becomes red-listed as NT according to the A-criterion (A2c + 3c + 4c) (species/habitat decline >15%). According to the C criterion (C2 a(i)), the species becomes red-listed as VU, based on a continuous decline, population size <10 000 individuals and very small/isolated subpopulations.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Cortinarius murellensis is a Mediterranean species, with mycorrhizal associations with sclerophyllous Quercus spp, mainly Q. ilex, but also Q. coccifera. The species occurs mainly in calcareous Q. ilex forests, including rather open forest borders with Q. ilex shrubs. Most finds are colline-montane, occurring up to approx 1200 m asl. in NE Spain and Mallorca.

Temperate ForestMediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation

Threats

Cortinarius murellensis and its habitats (calcareous Quercus ilex forests and woodlands) have been declining e.g. due to transformation into secondary macchia due to land-use, severe forest fires, and die-back of oak due to Phytophtora and other pathogens. Cortinarius murellensis has some of its larger, known populations at higher altitudes of isolated mountains of islands (Mallorca), and these might decline due to climate changes, affecting the altitudal zonation.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Conservation Actions

To prevent decline and further fragmentation of calcareous Quercus ilex forests with good habitat quality, it is important to set aside reserves on calcareous hotspots, housing many rare/redlisted, habitat-specific species such as C. aurilicis, C. quercilicis, C. humolens. It is furthermore important to establish also sites with a less strict conservation regime, such as woodland key biotopes, where some non-destructive human activity is accepted (such as non-intensive, closed cutting).

Site/area protection

Research needed

More mapping/surveying and monitoring of C. murellensis are needed. More data on occurrences in calcareous Quercus ilex forests of the W mediterranean region (core region) are needed, as well as monitoring series in this habitat. Data that can document time trends on C. murellensis and co-occurring habitat-specific fungi are completely lacking. Finally, more documentation on the degree of decline of the habit itself is needed.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Schmidt-Stohn, G., Saar, G., Brandrud, T.E. & Dima, B. 2016. Interessante Phlegmacium-Funde um Urbino. J. Journées Européennes Cortinaire 18: -.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted