• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Humidicutis arcohastata (A.M. Young) A.M. Young

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Scientific name
Humidicutis arcohastata
Author
(A.M. Young) A.M. Young
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN B2 a & b & D2
Proposed by
Patrick Leonard
Assessors
Patrick Leonard
Editors
Chris Graves, Patrick Leonard

Assessment Notes

Justification

Humudicutis arcohastata is a distinctive and attractive species that is easy to identify in the field, yet records are limited in number. Distribution includes sparse records from nature reserves in Queensland (one location), Victoria (one location) and Tasmania (three locations) in Australia. It is reported to grow amongst moss on decomposing wood (Young, 2000) in Broadleaved Temperate forests.
This species is proposed for listing as Endangered B2ab/D (or VU D2) on the basis of the small Area of Occupancy (32 km2), being severely fragmented as it is known from only 5 locations and has had severe fluctuation in the number of locations over time (the species has not been recorded from Victoria in 23 years). The Broadleaved temperate forest habitat has suffered dramatic decline and ongoing reduction of territory is expected due to habitat encroachment and climate change. This ecoregion is listed as Critical/Endangered (“East coast of Australia | Ecoregions | WWF,”).

The Hygrophoraceae (Wax Caps) Family are well studied and recognized as a worthy conservation cause in both Australia (Kearney, R. and Kearney, E., 2015) and Europe (Griffith, GW et al., 2002).

There have been no other records of this species worldwide.


Taxonomic notes

Pileus 20-40 mm.,at first deep olive-green but dark purple-tinted at the centre and yellow-tinted at the margin, changing to orange or orange-red with the colour change completed before the pileus is fully expanded; conical becoming broadly conical and finally more or less plane with a distinct umbo, smooth, slightly viscid, margin even to crenulate and striate.
Lamellae adnate with a decurrent tooth or arcuate, greenish yellow becoming orange-tinted with age, margins even and concolorous.
Stipe 20-40 × 2-4 mm; pale green near the lamellae, mauve-tinted in the middle section and orange-tinted towards the base; more or less cylindrical but a little tapered at the base; smooth, dry. Dried material becomes brownish pink to orange.
Spore print White. (Leonard, P., 2015)
Spores 7.5-9.5 × (4.5-) 5-6μm, mean 8.5 × 5.3μm, Q: l.4-1.8( -2.0), mean Q: 1.60, ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline, thin-walled, inamyloid. 
Basidia 38-50 x 6-9(-10.5)μm, mean 44.7 x 8.3μm, Q: (3.6-) 4.2-6.5, mean Q: 5.32, 4-spored, with medallion clamps.
Cystidia absent.
Hymenophoral trama regular and composed of cylindrical, thin-walled, hyaline, inflated and ellipsoid or moniliform elements 19-125 x 4.5-20.5μm, clamps absent.
Pileipellis a weak ixocutis of repent, cylindrical, hyaline, septate hyphae 2-4.5μm diameter, with spear-like, tapered, acute, pigment-encrusted apices; clamps absent.

Stipitipellis a cutis of repent, cylindrical, thin-walled, hyaline, septate hyphae 1.5-5.5μm diameter, clamps absent, pigment granules often encrusted on hyphal walls.
Habitat: Gregarious or caespitose amongst moss in eucalypt woodland
NB Leonard (2015) notes that the species is easy to recognise due to the colour combinations involving yellows, olives and lime green with a brown umbo.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Humudicutis arcohastata is a distinctive and attractive species that is easy to identify in the field, yet records are limited in number. Distribution includes sparse records from nature reserves in Queensland (one location), Victoria (one location) and Tasmania (three locations) in Australia. It is reported to grow amongst moss on decomposing wood (Young, 2000) in Broadleaved Temperate forests.
This species is proposed for listing as Endangered B2ab/D (or VU D2) on the basis of the small Area of Occupancy (32 km2), being severely fragmented as it is known from only 5 locations and has had severe fluctuation in the number of locations over time (the species has not been recorded from Victoria in 23 years). The Broadleaved temperate forest habitat has suffered dramatic decline and ongoing reduction of territory is expected due to habitat encroachment and climate change. This ecoregion is listed as Critical/Endangered (“East coast of Australia | Ecoregions | WWF,”).

The Hygrophoraceae (Wax Caps) Family are well studied and recognised as a worthy conservation cause in both Australia (Kearney, R. and Kearney, E., 2015) and Europe (Griffith, GW et al., 2002).

There have been no other records of this species worldwide.


Geographic range

Known from records at five locations in Eastern Australia: Mapleton National Park, Queensland ( seven records); Jumping Creek Reserve, Victoria (one record, May 1996) and Aspley Conservation Area, Bicheno (one record June 2017); Waratah (three records, April 2006) and Southwest Conservation Areas, Tasmania (two records, April 2006).


Population and Trends

The collection of data on the distribution and population of fungi in Queensland was almost wholly dependent on the work of the staff at the Queensland herbarium until 1995. The herbarium currently holds 5200 fungal specimens accumulated over 150 years. Recording has undergone considerable change in the past 25 years. The foundation of Fungimap in 1995 engaged citizen scientists in recording fungi and those records are now part of the ALA database. Over 100000 records have been collected by Fungimap some of which were for Queensland. In 2007 the Queensland Mycological Society was founded and began a program of organised forays mainly focussed on South East Queensland. About 300 days of effort are expended annually by members and some 4000 records have been made. The rate of fungal specimens added to the Herbarium has increased from 25 per annum over the previous century to 125 per annum in the last decade. More recently the creation of a South East Queensland Facebook group has allowed other naturalists to contribute information on the sighting of fungi over a wider area of the state. All this effort means that fungal records are more extensive in the last decade than in previous periods. This makes it difficult to establish trends, but also means that there is now a greater degree of accuracy about the size and distribution of fungal populations.
No population trends can be determined with this limited set of records. The only repeat collections of this species have been noted at Southeast Queensland (2008, 2009 and 2012).

Population Trend:


Habitat and Ecology

Specimens of Humidicutis arcohastata are found amongst moss on dead wood in established Broadleaved temperate forest with a predominant Eucalyptus spp canopy (Young, 2000).

H. arcohastata is found growing on dead wood while, curiously other members of the Family Hygrophoraceae are predominantly ground-dwelling (and others are known to be lichenised).

Temperate Forest

Threats

All records occur in nature reserves, three of the reserves are small and surrounded by urban areas (Mapleton National Park, Qld, Jumping Creek Reserve, Vic. and Aspley Conservation Area, Bicheno, Tas.)

No specific threats can be attested yet the severely fragmented population with sparse occurrence of specimens existing in small natural reserve areas suggests significant risk from stochastic events that may result in local environment degradation and loss of fungal substrate (namely old growth wood).

Significant threats lie in continued habitat loss or degradation due to decline of old-growth forest by human activity (forestry, fire, foot traffic and encroachment by agriculture or development).


Conservation Actions

No conservation actions currently target Humidicutis arcohastata.

There is a need for the conservation of habitat (including old growth substrate) from urban, commercial and agricultural incursion.

Site/area protectionSite/area managementInvasive/problematic species control

Research needed

Further research is needed to clarify conservation needs of this species including its life history and ecology. Research into the distribution, habitat monitoring and potential threats of H arcohastata is required.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyHarvest, use & livelihoodsThreatsActions

Use and Trade


Bibliography

East coast of Australia | Ecoregions | WWF [WWW Document], n.d. . World Wildlife Fund. URL https://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/aa0402 (accessed 6.2.19).

Forest Biome. [WWW Document], 2019. URL http://geography.name/forest-biome/ (accessed 4.13.19).

GeoCAT. [WWW Document], 2019. URL http://geocat.kew.org/editor (accessed 5.22.19).

Global Biodiversity Information Facility- Humidcutis arcohastata [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://www.gbif.org/species/3345582 (accessed 4.6.19).

Kearney, R., Kearney, E., 2015. Conservation of fungi in Lane Cove Bushland Park. Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation 24, 10.

Lawrey, J.D., Lücking, R., Sipman, H.J.M., Chaves, J.L., Redhead, S.A., Bungartz, F., Sikaroodi, M., Gillevet, P.M., 2009. High concentration of basidiolichens in a single family of agaricoid mushrooms (Basidiomycota: Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae). Mycological Research 113, 1154–1171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2009.07.016

Leonard, P., 2015. QMS-Humidicutis arcohastata description. Humidicutis arcohastata. URL http://qldfungi.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Humidicutis-arcohastata.pdf

Young, A.M., 2000. Additions to the Hygrocybeae (Fungi, Hygrophoraceae) of Victoria. I. Muelleria 14, 51–64.

 


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted