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Phylloporus fagicola Montoya & Bandala

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Scientific name
Phylloporus fagicola
Author
Montoya & Bandala
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A3c
Proposed by
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval
Assessors
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval
Editors
Roberto Garibay Orijel, Leticia Montoya
Contributors
Roberto Garibay Orijel
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg
Reviewers
Roberto Garibay Orijel

Assessment Notes

The species is known only to develop in ectomycorrhizal association with Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (Montoya and Bandala 2011) which currently is recognized under Mexican law (Rodríguez-Ramirez et al. 2013, 2017) endangered and extremely scarce in the country due to anthropogenic impacts. The tree actual areas of occurrence, where E. fagicola cohabits also, in Central Veracruz, are surrounded by cropping lands or rural communities. Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana is endemic to the tropical montane cloud forests of eastern Mexico, and, having a narrow range of suitable habitat, currently comprises eleven small and isolated patches, 144.54 ha (Rodríguez-Ramirez et al. 2013). The known distribution of E. fagicola is its type locality (Acatlán Volcano, in central Veracruz, eastern Mexico) and another F. grandifolia var. mexicana stand at Mesa de la Yerba (W to Xalapa city in central Veracruz, eastern Mexico). Both areas representing approx. 8.18 ha, and from the eleven known F. grandifolia var. mexicana relicts, are two of the most affected, by the fast change of land use, cropping and wood extraction. Among a group of mesophytic forest relicts in W Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, the site of Mesa de la Yerba was evaluated in terms of fragmentation and land use (Williams et al 2002). According to this the original forest shows to be severely destructed, with almost 90% disappeared in the last few decades, and the current surviving fragments facing negative border effects, which affects their microclimatic conditions (humidity decrease, temperature and wind increase) and the continuous human impact, by example wood extraction, affecting in the interior of the fragments. Additionally, those forest fragments are distributed in slopes with the risk of erosion. Moreover, in the last 50 years the roads opening has incremented fragmentation of the mesophytic forest in that region. Under these circumstances, we find E. fagicola extremely compromised by the threats of its unique habitat.

Justification

Phylloporus fagicola is only known from two localities in Southeastern Mexico, it establishes a mycorrhizal association with Fagus grandifolia var mexicana, which is a tree endemic to Mexico, with limited distribution and severely threatened. Known localities present mountain cloud forest, which is a threatened vegetation. Despite intensive effort for sampling in the region over the last two decades, no more subpopulations have been found. Neither of the localities is inside a protected area, or under some conservation program, otherwise the localities are in suburban areas under pressures from human activities and urbanization. Current models for the effect of climate change on mountain cloud forest in Mexico predict a reduction of the 68% in the following 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012). Considering the small number of known localities, the lack of conservation efforts, the vulnerability of this vegetation type in Mexico, this species should be listed as Endangered under criteria A3c because a projected reduction higher of 50% of the area for the vegetation type in the following 50 years.


Taxonomic notes

This species was first described as Phylloporus fagicola (Montoya & Bandala 2011), but a recent phylogenetic analysis recovered it in the genus Erytrophylloporus, and the combination E. fagicola was produced (Vadthanarat et al. 2019).
Erythrophylloporus fagicola can be distinguished from other similar taxa because of a combination of characters: a short, medium-sized basidiome, brightly colored (red orange with yellow tones with egg-yellow to orange-yellow lamellae) but with context and surfaces bruising blue, crowded lamellae, tick-walled cystidia, and pileipellis at first a cutis and developing frequent mounds of anticlinal chains of elements when mature (Montoya & Bandala 2011).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species is only known from a few localities in Mexico, only in association with Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana, which is a species endemic from Mexico, with a limited distribution and considered endangered. Only two subpopulations are known fro the species, despite two decades of research in the area. The subpopulations are located in suburban areareas, and are subject to severe pressures because human activities and urbanization. Also this subpopulations have mountain cloud forest vegetation, which is predicted to be reduced in 68% in Mexico over the next 50 years due to climate change (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012).  This species should be listed as Endangered under criteria A3c because a projected reduction higher of 50% of the area for the vegetation type in the following 50 years.


Geographic range

This species is only known from two localities in Veracruz, Mexico. Both localities are in suburban areas, and vegetation comprise forest patches dominated by Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (Mexican Beech). The forest patches are surrounded by human settles, and aren’t included in any protected area or reserve.


Population and Trends

This species is only know from two localities in Veracruz, Mexico, with mountain cloud forest, despite over the last ten years several field trips has been conducted in the area, no additional localities are known. Considering the specificity in the vegetation type, and the lack of new localities despite the continuous explorations, the know localities may be the only ones.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Phylloporus fagicola is assumed to establish ectomycorrhizal associations with Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana, because all the available specimens were collected in patches of mountain cloud forest, were those trees were dominant. The species is gregarious in naked soil with dead leaves or with mosses in mountain cloud forest, dominated by Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana, at 1840 m.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

Threats for Phylloporus fagicola come from the suburban status of the localities where the species inhabit, and from the vulnerable nature of the mountain cloud forest, were the species is distributed.
The vegetation patches where the species has been collected, are in suburban areas, without any regime for conservation of special management, the localities are under severe pressure for human activities and urbanization.
Also the mountain cloud forest is the most threatened vegetation type in Mexico. Models for the impact of climate change in mountain cloud forest in Mexico, predict a reduction on 68% in the next 50 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012).

Housing & urban areasHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Conservation actions needed are related with preservation of the areas where the species is known, and preservation of the vegetation type. Currently mountain cloud forest is considered an endangered vegetation type, but the vegetation patches where this species was collected are outside preserved areas.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection

Research needed

Research is needed regarding confirmation of the ectomycorrhizal association with Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana, and further exploration of areas where the potential plant associate is distributed.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There are no know uses for this species.


Bibliography

Montoya L., Bandala V.M. (2011). A new Phylloporus from two relict Fagus grandifolia
var. mexicana populations in a montane cloud forest. Mycotaxon 117: 9-18.

Ponce-Reyes, R., Reynoso-Rosales, V. H., Watson, J. E., VanDerWal, J., Fuller, R. A., Pressey, R. L., & Possingham, H. P. (2012). Vulnerability of cloud forest reserves in Mexico to climate change. Nature climate change, 2(6), 448.

Rodríguez-Ramírez E.Ch., Sánchez-González A., Ángeles-Pérez G. 2013. Current distribution and coverage of Mexican beech forests Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana in Mexico

Vadthanarat S., Amalfi M., Halling R.E., Bandala V.M., Lumyong S., Raspé O. (2019) Two new Erythrophylloporus species (Boletaceae) from Thailand, with two new combinations of American species. Mycokeys 55: 29-57.

Williams_Linera G., Manson R., Isunza-Vera E. (2002) La fragmentación del bosque mesófilo de montaña y patrones de uso del suelo en la región oeste de Xalapa, Veracruz, México.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted