The genus Volutella includes both sessile and stalked forms. The species Volutella buxi Corda, features sporodochium partially ciliated, conidia with two nucleus, rare three, hyaline, the base of the conidium a little longer. Bezerra (1963) and Rossman et al. (1993) redescribed and illustrated both the anamorph and teleomorph of Pseudonectria buxi. The conidia of the anamorph tend toward fusiform, a shape not seen in species of Volutella s. str., and the sporodochia tend to be broadly attached to the substratum (Petch, 1927; Gräfenhan et al., 2011).
Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?
The species Pseudonetria buxi is important in the decomposition of organic matter, leaf litter, but when there is humidity and the plant presents cuts and other forms of damage to leaves and stems, this fungus enters the host and causes diseases in cultivars, especially in temperate regions. It is important to find measures to control the disease without causing damage to human health and the environment.
Distribution: in temperate and tropical climate regions
Population and Trends
According to the GBIF there are about 235 occurrences of the species, in 23 countries distributed in Asia (China), Europe, North America (Fungal Databases, 2020). Pseudonectria buxi (formerly Volutella buxi) have been found on stems and lower leaf surfaces, and black are also sometimes found in petioles, stems and leaf litter in Italy (Garibaldi et al., 2016), France (Salgado-Salazar et al., 2019), China, Canada (Shi et al., 2014).
Population Trend: Uncertain
Habitat and Ecology
Stems and lower leaf surfaces, in petioles, stems and leaves
How this fungus causes plant diseases in temperate regions such as Canada, the United States and Europe, by cultivating avoids wetting the leaves when watering, and avoids excessive fertilization with nitrogen, removing infested branches and leaves on the ground, as the fungus overlaps them (Safrankova, 2007).
Agro-industry farmingUnspecified species
No fungicide is registered to control Volutella buxi (Pseudonectria buxi) in boxwood. Further field and growth room fungicide testing is required under commercial operating conditions (Shi; Hsiang, 2012).
Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection
It is necessary research that can control the disease caused by fungus in plants, without the use of fungicides because they can cause risks to human health and the environment, but the use of microorganisms that can control the disease without affecting both. Species of the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, for example, are among the most studied agents of biocontrol of diseases in the world, because they are not pathogenic (De Sá et al., 2019).
TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyHarvest, use & livelihoodsThreatsActionsSpecies Action/Recovery Plan
Use and Trade
Several studies have shown the most common disease problem found in foliage and rust samples of the Pseudonectria canker/Volutella stem, caused by Pseudonectria buxi (asexual, Volutella buxi). This disease can be controlled when treated correctly. Further studies and prevention measures are needed so that it does not harm health and the environment (Dodge, 1944; Shi; Hsiang, 2014, 2015).