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Clavulina kunmudlutsa T.W. Henkel & Aime

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Scientific name
Clavulina kunmudlutsa
T.W. Henkel & Aime
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
Smith, M. & Dentinger, B.
Furci, G. & Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/172740959/172861222


This species is known from a few sites in Guyana, where a tiny fraction of its possible suitable habitat has been surveyed. It has also been reported from Colombia, but further work is required to confirm whether the reports do represent the same species. Potential host plants occur in a large region encompassing parts of Venezuela, northern Brazil and south-east Colombia. This entire region is very under-sampled, being very remote and completely unsurveyed. In total approximately 0.002% of its potential suitable habitat has been surveyed for fungi. 

It is not possible to estimate population size or trends, extent of occurrence, or area of occupancy. Increasing threats from timber and mineral extraction, and land use changes are anticipated, with the potential for these to be rapid if further road construction occurs. It is, therefore, assessed as Data Deficient, and further survey work in this region is urgently needed.

Taxonomic notes

Macro- and micromorphology, ecology, and sequence data from the ITS and 28S confirm the generic placement of Clavulina kunmudlutsa.

Geographic range

This species is exclusively found in Dicymbe forests. In Guyana, it has been recorded from three sites, in Region 8 Potaro-Siparuni, with multiple records from one of the sites:

1. Pakaraima Mountains, Upper Potaro River Basin, within 10 km radius of 5.301, -59.911, 710–750 m: 0.4 km south-west of base camp near confluence of Blackwater Creek and Potaro River; 3.5 km west of base camp near Dicymbe plot 3; vicinity of base camp; 1.5 km east of base camp near Leon’s camp on white sand soils; 2.5 km west of base camp near Dicymbe plot 3 on grey sands; vicinity of old Ayanganna airstrip on white sand soils; west side of old Ayanganna airstrip; 1.5 km west of base camp near Dicymbe plot 3; 2.5 km south-east of base camp near Dicymbe plot 1.

2. Kopinang Mountain, SE slope along Kopinang- Orinduik Trail, 1.5 h walk S of Kopinang Village on steep slope, near 4.95, -59.88, 750–790 m, on ground under caesalpinioid legumes.

3. ~4.5 h walk NE of Kopinang Village, near 5.05, -59.80, 640 m, on ground along creek in Dicymbe-dominated forest.

In Colombia, this species has been reported in the Amazon region from one site in a white sand forests with Dicymbe uaipirensis, but this collection is yet to be verified by sequencing and it is uncertain whether this collection does represent this species. This is the only forest in which the fungal community has been studied in Colombia. The coordinates of the records are 4.009, -69.894 and 4.006, -69.899.

This entire region is very under-sampled, and there are areas in neighbouring Venezuela, northern Brazil and south-east Colombia with similar habitats but which are very remote and completely unsurveyed.

Population and Trends

When present, it occurs predictably and in enough abundance to be targeted by indigenous people as a wild collected food. In Guyana appears "exclusively under Dicymbe corymbosa, in infrequent but gregarious patches during the early to mid May-June rainy season” (Henkel et al. 2004).

It may be a common ectomycorrhizal associate of Dicymbe across the wider Guiana Shield region, however this is unknown. It is, therefore, not possible to estimate how many additional sites it occurs in, and therefore its population size is unknown.

This species has also potentially been reported from one site in Colombia, although further confirmation of identity is required. This is the only white sand forest with Dicymbe uaipirensis which has been studied in Colombia. It was collected twice, in 2011 and 2012, from the same plot, and the collections are likely to represent different individuals.

Population Trend: unknown

Habitat and Ecology

This species is an ectomycorrhizal symbiont of Dicymbe corymbosa (Fabaceae), and the report from Colombia was associated with Dicymbe uaiparuensis. It occurs preferentially in Dicymbe forests on white sand soils (Henkel et al. 2011).


Current threats include climate change and small-scale mineral extraction that can cause habitat disturbance and water pollution although these threats are currently not thought to be severe, as much of the interior of the region is very remote. Future threats from timber and mineral extraction, and land use changes are anticipated, with the potential for these to be rapid if further road construction occurs. Further impacts of climate change, particularly droughts, are also anticipated.

Conservation Actions

No conservation actions are currently in place for this species. Protection of habitat is needed. Additional survey work to document the species’ distribution and abundance, taxonomy, and life history are also needed; and potential impacts of harvesting on population genetics should be investigated. Given the recent report from Colombia, the collection should be sequenced to confirm whether it is the same species. If so, it may be significantly more widespread, and so further surveys in the intervening area are needed to clarify this.

Use and Trade

This species is a prized wild edible. It fills an important dietary role seasonally for the Patamona people of Guyana (Henkel et al. 2004, 2011).

Source and Citation

Smith, M. & Dentinger, B. 2021. Clavulina kunmudlutsa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T172740959A172861222. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T172740959A172861222.en .Accessed on 3 April 2022

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