• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Entoloma eugenei Noordel. & O.V. Morozova

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Scientific name
Entoloma eugenei
Author
Noordel. & O.V. Morozova
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Entolomataceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU
Proposed by
Tatyana Svetasheva
Assessors
Olga Morozova, Tatyana Svetasheva
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Entoloma eugenei is a recently described, very rare saprothropic fungus growing on soil and litter in temperate broadleaved forests in Eastern Asia. It forms large and easy recognizable sporocarps due to beautiful intensive blue colour of a cap and stem contrasting with white lamellae therefore it could be hardly overlooked during
mycological forays. However at present it is found only in 4 small localities of 3 countries: Russia, Japan, South Korea. The current situation with timber harvesting in Asian countries is quite dramatic, so the suitable habitats for this species are declining (. 
Global red-list assessment: The total population is estimated to be approx. 50 localities, which is correlate to 1 000 individuals according to IUCN standards. Since we have a small and declining population it could be assessed according to the C criterion and supposed declining 10% in 10 yr as VU C2(a i), or according criterion D, based on < 1000 mature individuals as En D1.


Taxonomic notes

This species is described in 2010 (Noordeloos, Morozova, 2010) from Russian Far East Previously it was also inserted in Genbank AB509605 as Entoloma aff. kujuense from Japan.  Conspecificity was confirmed by DNA-analysis (O.V. Morozova et al., 2014).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

Entoloma eugenei is an East Asian species, known in the only region of the Russian Far East - Primorsky Krai, “Kedrovaya Pad” Nature Reserve. Also it’s found in Japan and South Korea.


Population and Trends

In the Russian Far East it was found several times during period 2005-2011 in a few localities (4) situated in the floodplain forests along Kedrovaya river and Ananievka river. An area of occurency in Russia is about 80-120 км2. Only locality is known in Japan and another one in Korea as well (Kim et al., 2015)
This species can be found in the other close areas in the southern part of the Russian Far East, however at the moment it couldn’t. Inside the Kedrovaya Pad Nature Reserve the population can be considered quite stable. However a current situation in the Russian Far East forest sector is dramatic because of massive timber harvesting (Teplyakov, 2011; Illegal logging…, 2013; Feditchkina, Lankin, 2016; number of online resource), therefore the current trends of species population in general (including the other possible localities in Russia) could be declining.  It’s possible to assume that we have a small and declining population with a total number of localities including unknown possible habitats about 50, and number of mature individuals 1000 (50 х 2 х 10), thus preliminary assessment C2(a i) or D

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Entoloma eugenei is a saprothropic species grows on soil and litter in broadleaved forests. 
In the Russian Far East Entoloma eugenei was collected in floodplain forests along Kedrovka river and Ananievka river. Usually these forests are polydominant communities containing many tree species: Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis, T. mandshurica, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Acer mono , Betula dahurica, B. lutea, Ulmus laciniata, U. japonica, Alnus hirsuta, Populus maximowiczii, Salix schwerinii, S. gracilistyla.
In South Korea is found in mountain woodland at the elevation 1,242 m. The habitat was poorly described as “Humus in woodland”. There are no any data on ecology of finds from Japan. Thus at the moment ecological preferences are not completely clear. However it likely can be a well-developed woodland not disturbed by man.

Temperate Forest

Threats

The loss of suitable habitats, destroying and disturbing of known localities and close areas which can be potential habitats.  The main threat is logging,  removing of forest litter, destroying of litter and upper soil layer by forest management. Besides wild boars (when their population is big or quickly increasing) pose some threat because of disturbing of litter and humus layer.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesOther ecosystem modifications

Conservation Actions

- Protection of all known localities
- Wild boar population regulation

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionGenome resource bankInternational level

Research needed

Search of new localities in suitable habitats.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

Not known to be used.

Unknown

Bibliography

Morozova, O.V.; Noordeloos, M.E.; Vila, J. Entoloma subgenus Leptonia in boreal-temperate Eurasia: towards a phylogenetic species concept. Persoonia 32, 2014: 141–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/003158514X681774
Noordeloos ME, Morozova OV. 2010. New and noteworthy Entoloma species from the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East. Mycotaxon 112: 231–255.
Kim et al. (2015). Two Newly Recorded Entoloma Species, E. eugenei and E. subaraneosum, in Korea. The Korean Journal of Mycology. 43. 10.4489/KJM.2015.43.2.118.
Teplyakov Victor K.  (2011) Current trends in the Russian Far East forest sector, Forest Science and Technology, 7:3, 103-109, DOI: 10.1080/21580103.2011.594603
Illegal logging in the Russian Far East: global demand and taiga destruction. Smirnov, D.Y. (ed.) Kabanets, A.G., Milakovsky, B.J., Lepeshkin, E.A., Sychikov, D.V. 2013. WWF,vMoscow. 39 p.v https://wwf.ru/en/resources/publications/booklets/illegal-logging-in-the-russian-far-east/
Feditchkina Tracy E. ,  Lankin A. Analysis of Timber Exports from the Russian Far East in 2015.  — Vladivostok: WWF-Russia, 2016. — 44 p. https://wwf.ru/upload/iblock/b50/analysis_of_timber_far_east_eng.pdf

Online resource on a topic of illegal logging in Siberia and Far East (an unprecedented rate):
In Russia’s Vast Far East, Timber Thieves Thrivehttps://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2013/10/22/239665474/in-russias-vast-far-east-timber-theives-thrive
The Bugbear of Chinese Deforestation: The Real Threat to Russia’s Forests https://carnegie.ru/commentary/77200
Russia Is Running Out of Forest https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2014/09/30/russia-is-running-out-of-forest-a39951
Illegal Logging in the Russian Far East: Global Demand and Taiga Destruction https://www.worldwildlife.org/publications/illegal-logging-in-the-russian-far-east-global-demand-and-taiga-destruction
Illegal Logging of Russian Forests Threatening Tiger Habitat and Supplying Products Destined for US and Europe – WWF http://www.worldwildlife.org/press-releases/illegal-logging-of-russian-forests-threatening-tiger-habitat-and-supplying-products-destined-for-us-and-europe-wwf
Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/045034/meta
Deforestation of Siberian forests (In Russian - Вырубка сибирских лесов)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xIBceep0oXc
Forest cutting in Siberia (In Russian -Вырубка леса в Сибири) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IloOgweXKo0


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted