This species is known from the coastal Atlantic forest of Brazil. There are records from five sites, but it is likely to be more widespread. Based on the severe habitat decline within the area, we suspect a population decline of between 30% and 50% within the last three generations (50 years). It is therefore assessed as Vulnerable A2c.
This species grows in a particular coastal environment that has undergone a drastic territorial reduction as a result of the population expansion to these areas.
This species has limited distribution in the coastal Atlantic forest of Brazil. It is known from restinga areas from Parque Estadual Dunas de Natal, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (5º49’50.8"S and 35º11’21.2"W), from Millenium Inorganic Chemicals Mining (Crystal Company), Mataraca, Paraíba (6º28’20"S and 34º57’10"W), and also from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina: Parque Municipal das Dunas da Joaquina (27º36’44"S and 48º27’0.43"W) and Monumento Natural Municipal da Lagoa do Peri (27º43’39.5"S and 48º30’35.6"W).
This is a conspicuous species, with vibrant colour and easy to see in the field. Although it is usually found in relatively large populations, Amanita viscidolutea is a rare species and it grows in a specific type of vegetation that has been threatened by population growth and expansion, along the Brazilian coast. It is known that the Atlantic Forest has only 12.4% remaining of its original extent in the national territory (SOS Mata Atlântica 2019). In Brazil there are 5 records in Fungaria (splink.org.br).
The currently known sites each have around 5 patches, with each patch likely to consist of one genet, representing 10 ramets i.e. 50 mature individuals per site and thus 250 mature individuals in total in the currently known sites. This is a species with high detectability, but the possible area of suitable habitat is very large, therefore we have decided to apply a multiplier of 100-500 to account for the potential unknown sites. This gives a total population estimate of 25,000-50,000 mature individuals.
There has been a habitat decline of Atlantic forest of over 90% since the 1940s. There is a lack of data to be able to calculate precise declines of this habitat type within the last three generations (50 years) of this species, but based on this we precautionarily assume there has been a habitat loss of at least 30% within the past three generations and that this also equates to a population decline of at least 30% within this timeframe.
Population Trend: Decreasing
This species is solitary to subgregarious growing in sandy soil, in a shady environment on the dunes. It is possibly associated with Coccoloba spp. (Polygonaceae) and Guapira spp. (Nyctaginaceae).
Amanita viscidolutea is threatened by habitat loss. Urban expansion is the major factor threatening the last remnants of fragmented Atlantic Coast restingas. The sites where you can find this species are open recreational areas under increasing visitor pressure and have suffered intense degradation as urban development persists (SOS Mata Atlântica 2019). In these areas there is also invasion by non-native pine species (Pinus elliottii). Sea level rise through climate change is a potential future threat (Muehe 2010).
Site protection and management of habitats should be considered as conservation actions for this species. The areas in which Amanita viscidolutea were collected are equivalent to open recreational parks, with little environmental fiscalization. Raising awareness of this uncommon species’ presence in the parks would be beneficial.
There is a current need to expand the sampling of this species in other Brazilian coastal environments (restinga remnants), as well as a better understanding of the relationship of A. viscidolutea with its plant hosts.
The species is not eaten or used.
- SOS Mata Atlântica (2019). Mata Atlântica. Available in: https://www.sosma.org.br/causas/mata-atlantica/
- Menolli, Jr. N., Capelari M. and Baseia I.G. (2009) Amanita viscidolutea, a new species from Brazil with a ket to Central and South American specis of Amanita section Amanita. Mycologia 101(3): 395-400;
- Ribeiro, P.Y. and Melo jr. J.C.F. (2016) Richness and community structure of sand dunes (restinga) in Santa Catarina: subsidies for ecological restoration. Acta Biologica Catarinense 3(1):25-35;
- Scheibler, G. (2019) Sistemática de Amanita Pers. (Amanitaceae, Basidiomycota) no Brasil. Thesis dissertation. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brazil. 134 pp.;
- Wartchow, F., Maia, L.C. and Cavalcanti M.A.Q. (2012) Studies on Amanita (Agaricomycetidae, Amanitaceae) in Brazil: two yellow gemmatoid taxa. Nova Hedwigia 96(1-2): 61-71;