• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
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Coltricia permollis Baltazar & Gibertoni

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Scientific name
Coltricia permollis
Author
Baltazar & Gibertoni
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Hymenochaetales
Family
Hymenochaetaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C1+2a(ii)
Proposed by
Juliano M. Baltazar
Comments etc.
Juliano M. Baltazar
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Coltricia permollis is restricted to sandy soils near the coast in Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain.  It was described in 2010 based on seven specimens with only one additional specimen recorded since despite searching in appropriate habitats in areas regularly studied by experts. The species is restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic Coast, which houses the much of the Brazilian population (above 60%) and is experiencing an increasing urbanization and the introduction of exotic tree species such as Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. which also introduce exotic ectomycorrhizal fungal species that can potentially compete with native species including C. permollis.  Its population is estimated at ca. 7,500-9,000 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation. The species was likely more common in the past, but due to factors such as urbanization and exotic tree plantations the population has, and continues to decline. The species is assessed as Vulnerable under C1+2a(ii).


Taxonomic notes

Coltricia permollis was described by Baltazar et al. (2010) and it has no synonyms.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Coltricia permollis is a rare species which occurs in the Atlantic Forest. Current data suggest that it is restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic Coast (Restinga and Dense Ombrophilous Forest), the most urbanized part of the country. It is restricted to areas with a historical introduction of exotic trees such as Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp., which also introduced exotic ECM fungal species and can potentially compete with C. permollis if confirmed its ECM status.


Geographic range

Coltricia permollis is currently known from three sites in Northeastern Brazil —  two in the State of Paraíba (PB), one in the State of Sergipe (SE) — and one additional site in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Coltricia permollis is expected to occur throughout the Atlantic Forest domain in areas with predominance of sandy soil near to the coast. Despite it being known from SC, it is expected to be less frequent in subtropical areas.


Population and Trends

Coltricia permollis occurs in historical areas well sampled by experts. We assume that it is rare throughout its distribution. It is expected to occur in sandy forests along the Coastal Atlantic Forest in 250-300 sites. Its population is estimated at ca. 7,500-9,000 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation. The species was likely more common in the past, but due to factors such as urbanization and exotic tree plantations the population has, and continues to decline. The habitat decline in the Atlantic Forest is estimated to be 12.5% in the last 50 years (Bicudo da Silva et al. 2020), and it is estimated that this rate will continue resulting in an additional loss of 12.5% over the next 50 years (three generations). Additionally there is also an important loss of quality of habitat (Joly et al. 2014). Taken together there is an inferred population decline of 25% over the next 50 years.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Specimens of C. permollis were collected on the ground in sandy soil, usually among litter, in areas belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain. Specimens from Paraíba were found in areas of Restinga, a typical vegetational type from low lands along the Atlantic Coast. It is worth noting that five of the eight known specimens were gathered on the same day (May, 2009) in Mataraca (PB), in a Restinga forest owned by a mining company. The other specimen from Paraíba was collected in July, 2001, in Mamanguape, about 30 km from the site in Mataraca. The last specimen from Northeastern Brazil was also collected in July, 2001 in Itabaiana (SE), about 500 km from sites in PB. The site in SE is characterized by a transition between the coastal zone (Atlantic Forest) and Caatinga. The collection from SC was made in February, 2013 in a Resort located in the border of a large conservation unit. The vegetation is characterized by Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Atlantic Forest domain). All sites were close to the Atlantic Coast (less than 40 km) and found in sandy soil. Regarding the phenology, all collections were made during the wet season in their respective regions. Basidiomes of C. permollis grow among litter and sometimes are gregarious. Since it has rarely been found, even in areas well explored by specialists, it is very likely that C. permollis is a rare species. This species potentially forms ectomycorrhizal associations with certain plants as other Coltricia species have been confirmed as mycorrhizal (Tedersoo et al. 2007) and Corrales et al. (2018) have reported additional ECM fungal species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

Loss of habitat is the main threat to C. permollis since it is only known from the most populous parts of Brazil, i.e., the Atlantic Coast. There are several Conservation Units in the zone, but the current preserved area is reduced to 28% of the original covered area of the Atlantic Forest.  Most remnants are fragmented and smaller than 50 ha with only 30% within Conservation Units (Rezende et al. 2008).  The main causes of loss of habitat is urbanization and plantations of exotic trees such as Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. The introduction of exotic trees can also be accompanied by the introduction of invasive ECM fungi, leading to substitution of indigineous ECM funga. Atlantic Forest is the most urbanized Brazilian domain and is home to 125 million inhabitants, or about 60% of the Brazilian population (Rezende et al. 2008).  Climate change can drastically affect the Atlantic Forest, and combined with loss of habitat can lead to a process of savannization.  Also, one site of occurrence is located in a zone with mining and wind farms.

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasTourism & recreation areasSmall-holder plantationsAgro-industry plantationsScale Unknown/UnrecordedMining & quarryingRenewable energyUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

The main action to preserve Coltricia permollis is the preservation of the Atlantic Forest, keeping the protection of Conservation Areas, creation of new ones, and promoting the restoration of habitats whenever possible. The enforcement of current legislation would be very important to reach these goals. Furthermore, preventing the urbanization process and introduction of exotic trees is is needed to mitigate the loss of habitat.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionInvasive/problematic species controlHabitat & natural process restorationNational levelSub-national levelPolicies and regulations

Research needed

It is important to carry out studies to understand if C. permollis forms ECM and, if so, with which plants it associates. Additional surveys in Restinga Forests in the Atlantic Forest as well as other areas with sandy soil like those in the Amazon which is suspected to have an evolutionary connection with the northeastern Atlantic Forest (Xavier de Lima et al. 2018) and hosts ECM species (Roy et al. 2016) are needed to confirm its distribution and population size.  Molecular studies are also needed. Sequencing of basidiomes and mycorrhizal roots tips would confirm the ECM status of the species.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There are no reported uses and trades.

Unknown

Bibliography

Baltazar JM, Ryvarden L, Gibertoni TB (2010) The genus Coltricia in Brazil: new records and two new species. Mycologia 102:1253–1262. https://doi.org/10.3852/09-227

Bicudo da Silva RF, Millington JDA, Moran EF, et al (2020) Three decades of land-use and land-cover change in mountain regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Landsc Urban Plan 204:103948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103948

Corrales A, Henkel TW, Smith ME (2018) Ectomycorrhizal associations in the tropics – biogeography, diversity patterns and ecosystem roles. New Phytol 220:1076–1091. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15151

Joly CA, Metzger JP, Tabarelli M (2014) Experiences from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Ecological findings and conservation initiatives. New Phytol 204:459–473. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12989

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, et al (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspect Ecol Conserv 16:208–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PECON.2018.10.002

Roy M, Schimann H, Braga-Neto R, et al (2016) Diversity and Distribution of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi from Amazonian Lowland White-sand Forests in Brazil and French Guiana. Biotropica 48:90–100. https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12297

Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Beaver K, Saar I (2007) Ectomycorrhizas of Coltricia and Coltriciella (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) on Caesalpiniaceae, Dipterocarpaceae and Myrtaceae in Seychelles. Mycol Prog 6:101–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-007-0530-4

Xavier de Lima V, Nogueira-Melo GS, Baltazar JM, et al (2018) Fungal perspective on neotropical biogeography: poroid fungi (Agaricomycetes: Hymenochaetales and Polyporales) and the Brazilian moist forests. Fungal Ecol 36:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.FUNECO.2018.06.004


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted