Xylaria nigromedullosa Trierv.-Per. & A.I. Romero was described in 2009 based on a specimen collected in a fragment of Atlantic Forest from Southern Brazil, State of Santa Catarina (Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2009). No synonyms are recorded for the species.
This lignicolous Xylaria species is probably a rare species, since it was found only once in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil. However, more data is necessary to better understand the species ecology and distribution.
Xylaria nigromedullosa is currently only known from the type locality, a remnant of the Atlantic Forest near the coast (Dense Ombrophilous Forest lowlands), in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.
The population size of this species is difficult to assess since it is only known from the original publication. The type collection is composed of six stromata from the same fallen trunk. The species is conspicuous, however, there are only a few specialists working on taxonomy of non-lichenized ascomycetes in Brazil. The species’ first author has been collecting macrofungi in Southern Brazil for more than fifteen years and found the species only once. This might indicate that the species is rare.
Population Trend: Uncertain
Xylaria nigromedullosa is a saprotrophic species and grows on dead wood. Its distribution is restricted to the type locality, an insular remnant of Atlantic Rain Forest (Ombrophilous Dense Forest). Thus its actual habitat and ecology are uncertain.
Where the type collection of Xylaria nigromedullosa was collected the main threats are: urban expansion; real estate speculation in coastal areas; predatory tourism; pollution from the disposal of garbage and even effluents; deforestation and fires; vehicle traffic; and the presence of exotic plant species.
The main action to preserve the species is the protection of its habitat and creation of new conservation areas to harbor the probable microhabitats to which the Atlantic Forest may be restricted in the future. Also, measures must be taken to assure that the protected Atlantic Forest areas reach a mature state.
Since the species is only known from the type collection, more studies are necessary to investigate where X. nigromedullosa occurs, to estimate its population, distribution and trends. In Brazil, we need more taxonomists trained to study non-lichenized ascomycetes.
There are no reported uses.
Trierveiler-Pereira L, Romero AI, Baltazar JM, Loguercio-Leite C. 2009. Additions to the knowledge of Xylaria (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota) in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Mycotaxon 107: 139–156.