Stropharia venusta is similar to S. rugosoannulata, but differs by the color, consistency of the annulus and by the types and shapes of the cystidia (Silva et al. 2009).
Stropharia venusta is a mushroom species from the Araucaria Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, a very fragile habitat that is estimated to have decline about 97% and is projected to further decline in the future.
It is assessed as VU under criterion C1+C2a(ii).
The species is currently known from São Francisco de Paula National Forest, in Rio Grande do Sul state, and São Joaquim National Park, in Santa Catarina state, both in Southern Brazil. The species occurs in the Atlantic Forest, in the Araucaria Moist Forests and in the Cloud Forests associated with Araucaria Forests.
It is expected to be found throughout the Araucaria Moist Forests in Southern Brazil and a small part of northern Misiones, Argentina.
Stropharia venusta is currently known from two localities and 7 collections. It is likely a rare species, as there are few records even in well surveyed areas in its potential range, such as the São Joaquim National Park and the São Francisco de Paula National Forest, where in over a decade of intensive surveying, only 7 specimens have been found.
The habitat where the species is found has suffered a decline by about 97%, with the remaining areas heavily fragment, with over 80% of the fragments with less than 50 ha, and surrounded by farming lands, which have been shown to hold a smaller diversity than larger forests, and with signs of disturbance (Ribeiro et al. 2009, Souza et al. 2012, Nodari et al. 2016).
Total population is estimated at no more than 8.000 mature individuals, distributed in around 100 sites, each with up to 80 mature individuals. Between 2001 and 2018, there has been a liquid cover loss of approximately 3.1% (13% loss and 9.9% gain) (Global Forest Watch 2020). However, in chronically disturbed areas, the Araucaria Moist Forests are kept at early successional stages, which may not hold the appropriate conditions to support species from pristine fungal communities, such as S. venusta.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Stropharia venusta is a saprotrophic mushroom found on soil, litter and decomposed wood in the Araucaria Moist Forests.
The species is threatened by habitat loss, mainly due to logging and conversion of forests into farming lands. The Araucaria Moist Forests have lost about 97% of their original extent, with 80% of the remaining area being composed by fragments under 50 ha inside of private farms and surrounded by crop fields and grasslands, and largely disturbed. Only 3.1% of this habitat is in protected areas.
The Araucaria Moist Forests are restricted to higher altitude regions with subtropical climates, with high year-long precipitation, cold winters and temperate summers. Studies have shown that by 2070, Araucaria angustifolia, the dominant tree of the AMF, will likely be restricted to highland microrefugia as an impact of climate change. This means that the structure of the AMF can be drastically different, or that the AMF itself will also be restricted to these areas.
The main action to preserve the species is the protection of its habitat, restoration of Araucaria Moist Forests, and creation of new conservation areas to harbor the probable microhabitats to which the AMF may be restricted in the future. Also, measures must be taken to assure that the protected AMF areas reach a mature state.
More surveys are needed in other areas to confirm the species range, including its association with mature forestal conditions. Also, there are no DNA sequences available for the species, and no phylogenetic studies have been conducted to test its phylogenetic position. Additionally, herbaria revisions from specimens identified as Stropharia rugosoannulata from AMF may represent new records from S. araucariae, as the species are similar, according to the authors.
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