Fuscoporia bifurcata is a polypore currently known only from the mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Southern Brazil but it is expected to occur throughout the mangrove forests of the southastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil, with an estimated 300 sites, each supporting an average 50 mature individuals. Total population is estimated at up to 15,000 mature individuals. The population is estimated to decline by at least 30-40% in the next 30 years, driven mainly by habitat loss due to sea-level rise as a consequence of climate change, as well as by deforestation due to the expansion of shrimp farming and urban occupation. Given the rapid anticipated population decline over the next 30 years, the species is assessed as Vulnerable.
Fuscoporia bifurcata is macromorphologically similar to F. gilva and F. callimorpha, but can be distinguished by its bifurcate setae and larger spores. It differs in habitat, growing exclusively on mangroves.
Fuscoporia bifurcata is a polypore currently known only from the mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, but it is expected to occur throughout the mangrove forests of the southern-eastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Mangroves are an endangered biome, both by direct anthropogenic activity and climate change. The species is assessed as VU under criterion A3c.
Fuscoporia bifurcata is currently known only from the mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, but it is expected to be widespread throughout the mangrove forests in the southeastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil.
Fuscoporia bifurcata is currently known from 4 sites and 8 collections in Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. It is expected to occur throughout the southeastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil, growing in the fragmented small patches of mangrove along the coast. There are an estimated 300 sites, each supporting an average 50 mature individuals. The total population is estimated to be up to 15,000 mature individuals.
The population is estimated to decline by at least 30-40% in the next 30 years, driven mainly by habitat loss due to sea-level rise as a result of climate change, as well as deforestation from the expansion of shrimp farming and urban development.
Population Trend: Decreasing
The species is saprobic and lignicolous. Currently only known from living and dead trunks of Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa in mangrove forests along the Brazilian Coast.
Awareness on mangrove importance and the necessity for conservation of this biome has largely increased in the last decades. In fact, 87% of the ecosystem in Brazil is within conservation units (ICMBIO 2018). Still, mangroves have lost more than 25% of their original area in the country, and Brazil’s population is heavily concentrated in the coastal areas. In order to have space for growing cities, many mangrove areas have been destroyed. Mangrove areas where cities were established, are usually under heavy pollution and other stress factors. Shrimp farming poses the highest short-term threat to mangrove forests, especially in Brazil’s northeast, as large areas are cleared and converted to shrimp farming tanks, and chemical spills damage even adjacent remaining mangroves. According to the Brazilian Mangrove Atlas (2018), 36,000 ha of mangrove forests have been converted to shrimp farms between the years 2013 and 2016.
Moreover, mangroves are one of the fastest changing environments in face of climate change (Loarie et al. 2009). Due to rising sea-levels, mangroves migrate inland, however, that is only possible when changes occur slowly enough and when there are appropriate conditions (Mcleod et al. 2006). In areas already occupied by roads, agricultural fields, urbanization, etc., and areas where the topography is not adequate, mangroves will not survive the rising sea-levels.
About 87% of Brazil’s mangrove areas are in conservation units. However many mangroves are in urban areas or in river basins affected by human activities, especially pollution by sewage and heavy metals from industrial activities. Regulations and improving of water treatment systems are needed to maintain the health of mangroves. Also, enforcement of regulation and effluent treatment from shrimp farms are needed to reduce further damage. Restoration of abandoned shrimp farms back into mangroves could help mitigate damage.
Research is needed to better understand the species potential distribution and its ecology, as well as the influence of anthropogenic activities such as pollution on its biology. There is also a need for revision of herbaria material identified as Fuscoporia gilva (and its synonyms, such as Phellinus gilvus), as the species are macromorphologically similar, which could represent new records of F. bifurcata.
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