• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Fuscoporia bifurcata Baltazar, Trierv.-Per., Log.-Leite & Ryvarden

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Scientific name
Fuscoporia bifurcata
Author
Baltazar, Trierv.-Per., Log.-Leite & Ryvarden
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Hymenochaetales
Family
Hymenochaetaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A3c
Proposed by
MIND.Funga Initiative
Assessors
Felipe Bittencourt, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha
Comments etc.
MIND.Funga Initiative
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Fuscoporia bifurcata is a polypore currently known only from the mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Southern Brazil but it is expected to occur throughout the mangrove forests of the southastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil, with an estimated 300 sites, each supporting an average 50 mature individuals. Total population is estimated at up to 15,000 mature individuals. The population is estimated to decline by at least 30-40% in the next 30 years, driven mainly by habitat loss due to sea-level rise as a consequence of climate change, as well as by deforestation due to the expansion of shrimp farming and urban occupation. Given the rapid anticipated population decline over the next 30 years, the species is assessed as Vulnerable. 


Taxonomic notes

Fuscoporia bifurcata is macromorphologically similar to F. gilva and F. callimorpha, but can be distinguished by its bifurcate setae and larger spores. It differs in habitat, growing exclusively on mangroves.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Fuscoporia bifurcata is a polypore currently known only from the mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, but it is expected to occur throughout the mangrove forests of the southern-eastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Mangroves are an endangered biome, both by direct anthropogenic activity and climate change. The species is assessed as VU under criterion A3c.


Geographic range

Fuscoporia bifurcata is currently known only from the mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, but it is expected to be widespread throughout the mangrove forests in the southeastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil.


Population and Trends

Fuscoporia bifurcata is currently known from 4 sites and 8 collections in Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. It is expected to occur throughout the southeastern and northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil, growing in the fragmented small patches of mangrove along the coast. There are an estimated 300 sites, each supporting an average 50 mature individuals. The total population is estimated to be up to 15,000 mature individuals.
The population is estimated to decline by at least 30-40% in the next 30 years, driven mainly by habitat loss due to sea-level rise as a result of climate change, as well as deforestation from the expansion of shrimp farming and urban development.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The species is saprobic and lignicolous. Currently only known from living and dead trunks of Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa in mangrove forests along the Brazilian Coast.

Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level

Threats

Awareness on mangrove importance and the necessity for conservation of this biome has largely increased in the last decades. In fact, 87% of the ecosystem in Brazil is within conservation units (ICMBIO 2018). Still, mangroves have lost more than 25% of their original area in the country, and Brazil’s population is heavily concentrated in the coastal areas. In order to have space for growing cities, many mangrove areas have been destroyed. Mangrove areas where cities were established, are usually under heavy pollution and other stress factors. Shrimp farming poses the highest short-term threat to mangrove forests, especially in Brazil’s northeast, as large areas are cleared and converted to shrimp farming tanks, and chemical spills damage even adjacent remaining mangroves. According to the Brazilian Mangrove Atlas (2018), 36,000 ha of mangrove forests have been converted to shrimp farms between the years 2013 and 2016.
Moreover, mangroves are one of the fastest changing environments in face of climate change (Loarie et al. 2009). Due to rising sea-levels, mangroves migrate inland, however, that is only possible when changes occur slowly enough and when there are appropriate conditions (Mcleod et al. 2006). In areas already occupied by roads, agricultural fields, urbanization, etc., and areas where the topography is not adequate, mangroves will not survive the rising sea-levels.

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasIndustrial aquacultureUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]SewageHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

About 87% of Brazil’s mangrove areas are in conservation units. However many mangroves are in urban areas or in river basins affected by human activities, especially pollution by sewage and heavy metals from industrial activities. Regulations and improving of water treatment systems are needed to maintain the health of mangroves.  Also, enforcement of regulation and effluent treatment from shrimp farms are needed to reduce further damage. Restoration of abandoned shrimp farms back into mangroves could help mitigate damage.

Site/area protectionHabitat & natural process restorationNational levelSub-national level

Research needed

Research is needed to better understand the species potential distribution and its ecology, as well as the influence of anthropogenic activities such as pollution on its biology. There is also a need for revision of herbaria material identified as Fuscoporia gilva (and its synonyms, such as Phellinus gilvus), as the species are macromorphologically similar, which could represent new records of F. bifurcata.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Baltazar, J. M., Trierveiler-Pereira, L., Loguercio-Leite, C., Ryvarden, L. (2009). Santa Catarina Island mangroves 3: a new species of Fuscoporia. Mycologia, 101(6), 859–863. doi:10.3852/08-082

Bamber, J. L., Oppenheimer, M., Kopp, R. E., Aspinall, W. P., & Cooke, R. M. (2019). Ice sheet contributions to future sea-level rise from structured expert judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201817205. doi:10.1073/pnas.1817205116

Diniz, C., Cortinhas, L., Nerino, G., Rodrigues, J., Sadeck, L., Adami, M., & Souza-Filho, P. (2019). Brazilian Mangrove Status: Three Decades of Satellite Data Analysis. Remote Sensing, 11(7), 808. doi:10.3390/rs11070808

ICMBio - Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade. (2018).  Brazilian Mangrove Atlas. Brasília, Brazil. 22 pp.

Loarie, S., Duffy, P., Hamilton, H., Asner, G.P., Field, C.B., Ackerly, D.D. (2009). The velocity of climate change. Nature 462, 1052–1055. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08649

McLeod, Elizabeth and Salm, Rodney V. (2006). Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 64pp.

Trindade, L.C. (2016). Os Manguezais da Ilha de Santa Catarina Frente à Antropização da Paisagem. (MSc. Thesis) Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted