• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Lactarius strigosipes Montoya & Bandala

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Scientific name
Lactarius strigosipes
Author
Montoya & Bandala
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Russulales
Family
Russulaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A3c
Proposed by
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval
Assessors
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval
Editors
Gregory Mueller
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

This species is only known from two localities in the vicinity of the city of Xalapa, Veracruz. Both locations are in tropical montane cloud (TMC) forests, which is predicted to decline by 68% over the next 60 years. This species has been documented as ectomycorrhizal with Quercus xalapensis, which is listed as vulnerable by IUCN. To asses its potential distribution, a directed search for the presence of the species in other localities was conducted. Additionally ITS sequences generated from the type specimens (JN003629, JN859141) were compared against a database of fungal ITS sequences, produced from soil samples from 12 different locations across several Quercus forest localities (Garibay-Orijel pers.comm.). No additional collections were obtained and there were only two single ITS matches to Lactarius strigosipes in the environmental samples, one form a montane Quercus forest location in Jalisco, and the other from El Zembo Park in Hidalgo, in a forest transitional between Quercus and TMC forest. Single sequence matches are weak evidence for documenting distributions. These data corroborate the narrow distribution for this species, restricted to a vegetation type in sever decline and associated with a threatened Quercus species.

Justification

Lactarius strigosipes is currently known from only two sites, both in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMC) near the city of Xalapa, Mexico. Targeted fieldwork at a number of additional sites with similar habitats plus an examination of environmental (soil) derived ITS sequences from Quercus dominated forests across Mexico,  suggest that this species is rare and restricted to TMC forests.  Based on climate change models, TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007). Therefore, it is assessed as VUA3c based on the anticipated decline in suitable habitat and its obligate host.  Based on its rareness and restricted distribution, it possibly could also be listed under C1, but the actual number of mature individuals are difficult to estimate without further extensive fieldwork.


Taxonomic notes

This species was described in 2008 and does not have any taxonomic or nomenclatural synonyms.
Basionym
Lactarius strigosipes Montoya & Bandala, Fungal Diversity 29: 65 (2008)

Etymology: strigosipes (Lat.) refers to the presence of strigose scales at stipe base.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species was described by Montoya and Bandala (2008), based on specimens collected between 2003-2006 from a tropical mountain cloud forest near the Instituto de Ecología in Veracruz, Mexico. This species is only known from two localities, and is in ectomycorrhizal association with Quercus xalapensis (Lamus et al. 2012), an endemic species which is listed as vulnerable by IUCN. Climate change models predict that this vegetation type will decline 68% over the next 60 years, and Quercus species growing in temperate to cold climates will have a decline of 30-45% over the next 30 years.


Geographic range

This species is only known from two localities in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Both localities are in tropical mountain cloud forest habitat, and are less than 10km away from each other. One of the localities, Santuario del Bosque de Niebla (type locality), is a protected area next to the Instituto de Ecología. The species was collected at that site eight times between 2003-2006. The only other colleciton was found in a suburban area without conservation programs in 2001 near San Antonio, municipality of Tlalnelhuayocan. Targeted fieldwork at a number of additional sites with similar habitats plus an examination of environmental (soil) derived ITS sequences from Quercus dominated forests accross Mexico, suggest that this species is rare and restricted to TMC forests.


Population and Trends

Lactarius strigosipes is rare and restricted to tropical montane cloud (TMC) forests where it forms an obligate symbiotic association with Quercus xalapensis. It is recorded from only two localities. One site is in a suburban area and the other is in a small patch of protected forest near the city of Xalapa, Veracruz. The two sites are within 10km of each other, and both are under pressure from suburban encroachment.  Based on climate change models, TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007).

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

This species is only known from tropical mountain cloud forest habitats. It has been documented to form ectomycorrhizas with Quercus xalapensis (Lamus et al. 2012), which is listed as vulnerable by IUCN and is endemic to southern Mexico and northern Central America. To assess its potential distribution, a directed search for the presence of the species in other localities was conducted. Additionally ITS sequences generated from the type specimens (JN003629, JN859141) were compared against a database of fungal ITS sequences, produced from soil samples from 12 different locations across several Quercus forest localities (Garibay-Orijel pers.comm.). No additional collections were obtained and there were only two single ITS matches to Lactarius strigosipes in the environmental samples, one form a montane Quercus forest location in Jalisco, and the other from El Zembo Park in Hidalgo, in a forest transitional between Quercus and TMC forest. Single sequence matches are weak evidence for documenting distributions. These data corroborate the narrow distribution for this species, restricted to a vegetation type in severe decline and associated with a threatened Quercus species.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

This species is only known from tropical montane cloud forest (TMC) habitats, associated with Quercus xalapensis (Lamus et al. 2012). TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007).  Additionally, this species is rare, and its known localities are subject to pressure from suburban development.

Housing & urban areasClimate change & severe weather

Conservation Actions

While climate change is a major threat to the species, habitat loss and degradation is an ongoing threat.  Reducing pressure due to land transformation—expansion of housing and conversion to farm and pasture land is need.  Needed conservation actions are associated with the conservation of the habitat. The tropical montane cloud forest (TMC) is a vegetation type under severe pressures, especially in Mexico. Models for the effects of climate change predicts that the TMC forest will decline in Mexico in 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and the species or Quercus inhabiting the temperate of cold areas will decline in 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007).

Resource & habitat protection

Research needed

Based on its rareness and restricted distribution, the species possibly could also be listed under C1, but extensive fieldwork is needed to enable an estimate of the the actual number of mature individuals.  Phylogenetic analyses are needed to understand its evolutionary and biogeographic history.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Gómez-Mendoza L, & Arriaga, L. (2007). Modeling the effect of climate change on the distribution of oak and pine species of Mexico. Conservation Biology, 21(6), 1545-1555.

Lamus, V., Montoya, L., Aguilar, C. J., Bandala, V. M., & Ramos, D. (2012). Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest. Mycologia, 104(6), 1261-1266.

Montoya, L., & Bandala, V. M. (2008). A new species and new records of Lactarius (subgenus Russularia) in a subtropical cloud forest from eastern Mexico. Fungal Divers, 29, 61-72.

Ponce-Reyes, R., Reynoso-Rosales, V. H., Watson, J. E., VanDerWal, J., Fuller, R. A., Pressey, R. L., & Possingham, H. P. (2012). Vulnerability of cloud forest reserves in Mexico to climate change. Nature Climate Change, 2(6), 448.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted