• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Restiosporium patei Vánky

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Scientific name
Restiosporium patei
Author
Vánky
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Rust and Smut
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Ustilaginomycetes
Order
Ustilaginales
Family
Websdaneaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN B2ab(ii,iii)
Proposed by
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Contributors
Teodor T. Denchev
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Craig Hilton-Taylor

Assessment Status Notes

EN B2ab(ii,iii) (Endangered)

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Restiosporium patei is a host specific smut fungus which develops sori in the nuts of Lepidobolus densus (Restionaceae).

The host plant, Lepidobolus densus, is endemic to Australia and has a restricted and highly fragmented distribution area. This species is known only from Western Australia, in the Geraldton Sandplains, Avon Wheatbelt, and Yalgoo biogeographic regions (Briggs et al. 2012).

The smut fungus, Restiosporium patei, is known only from the type collection (Western Australia, Morawa Shire, 44 km E of Mingenew) where it was collected in 1995 (Vánky 2006, 2011; Vánky & Shivas 2008; Shivas 2010). The locality of this smut fungus lies in the Western Australian wheat belt. This is an area with very intensive agriculture, such as cropping and livestock production. In the Western Australian wheat belt, widespread and rapid clearing for agriculture has removed most of the native perennial vegetation and replaced it with an agricultural system based predominantly on annual crops and pastures (Hobbs 1993). Only 18.1% of the wheat belt is still covered by remnant native vegetation, which is scattered and highly fragmented, and where many land managers continue to allow uncontrolled domestic grazing by livestock (WWF 2015).

Preliminary red-list assessment: EN B2ab(ii,iii) (Endangered)

Considering the single known locality and the restricted area of occupancy, as well as the presence of ongoing threats for the habitat of the host plant, Restiosporium patei is red-listed as a threatened species. It is a case of a threatened fungal species on an endemic plant species that has a restricted distribution area. The only known locality of R. patei is situated in one of the most intensive zones of agriculture use in Australia. Restiosporium patei fulfills B-criterion using AOO (area of occupancy estimated not to exceed 500 km2) and meets EN B2, regarding subcriteria a (number of locations) and b (ii & iii) (continuing decline – observed, inferred or projected – in the area of occupancy, and area, extent, and quality of the habitat).


Geographic range

Restiosporium patei is known only from the type collection (Western Australia, Morawa Shire, 44 km E of Mingenew) where it was collected in 1995 (Vánky 2006, 2011; Vánky & Shivas 2008).

Host-specific to an endemic plant with a restricted and highly fragmented distribution area.


Population and Trends

There is no specific information on population size or trends. However, the host plant has limited distribution and is restricted to an area subjected to ongoing threats: cropping and livestock production.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

The sori of Restiosporium patei develop in the nuts of Lepidobolus densus (Restionaceae). The fungus is host-specific and depends on its host plant.

Lepidobolus densus is a perennial, densely tufted herb, forming large, dense, many-stemmed tussocks to 30(–90) cm diam. It grows on yellow lateritic sand and laterite gravel, often in scleromorphic heath (Briggs et al. 2012).

The only known locality of Restiosporium patei is situated in one of the most intensive zones of agriculture use in Australia, with a cleared or highly modified native vegetation.

ShrublandMediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation

Threats

The only known locality of Restiosporium patei is in the Western Australian wheat belt. It is one of the most intensive agricultural regions in Australia, with substantial cropping and livestock production, and mostly cleared or highly modified native vegetation. In the Western Australian wheat belt, widespread rapid clearing for agriculture has removed most of the native perennial vegetation and replaced it with an agricultural system based predominantly on annual crops and pastures (Hobbs 1993). Only 18.1% of the wheat belt is still covered by native vegetation, which is scattered and highly fragmented across the agricultural landscape, where many land managers continue to allow uncontrolled domestic livestock grazing in these wheat belt remnants (WWF 2015). Restiosporium patei is threatened by habitat loss and degradation.

Agriculture & aquacultureAnnual & perennial non-timber cropsLivestock farming & ranchingPollutionAgricultural & forestry effluents

Conservation Actions

The only known locality of this smut fungus is not included in a protected area. Conservation of the host plant is needed. Ex situ conservation of the plant will not necessarily protect the fungus: in situ conservation is needed.

Land/water protectionSite/area protectionLand/water managementSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationEducation & awarenessAwareness & communications

Research needed

Further information is needed about population levels and distribution of the fungus.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Bibliography

Briggs, B.G., Dixon, K.W and Johnson, L.A.S. 2012. New species and variation in Lepidobolus (Restionaceae) from Western Australia. Telopea 14: 29–36.

Hobbs, R.J. 1993. Effects of landscape fragmentation on ecosystem processes in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. Biological Conservation 64: 193–201.

Shivas, R. 2010. Lepidobolus Smut (Restiosporium patei). Available online: PaDIL – http://www.padil.gov.au/aus-smuts/pest/main/140099. Downloaded on 6 March 2015.

Vánky, K. 2006. The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Restionaceae s. lat. Mycologia Balcanica 3: 19–46.

Vánky, K. 2011. Smut Fungi of the World. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Vánky, K. and Shivas, R.G. 2008. Fungi of Australia: the smut fungi. In: Fungi of Australia Series. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra & CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

WWF. 2015. The Wheatbelt of the Southwest Australia Ecoregion. http://www.wwf.org.au/our_work/saving_the_natural_world/australian_priority_places/southwest_australia/southwest_australia_ecoregion/threats/the_wheatbelt_of_the_southwest_australia_ecoregion/. Downloaded on 6 March 2015.


Citation
Denchev, C.M., Shivas, R.G. & Denchev, T.T. 2015. Restiosporium patei Vánky. In: The Global Fungal Red List Initiative. http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/510131/.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted