• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • DDPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Restiosporium lepyrodiae Vánky

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Scientific name
Restiosporium lepyrodiae
Author
Vánky
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Rust and Smut
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Ustilaginomycetes
Order
Ustilaginales
Family
Websdaneaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
DD
Proposed by
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Contributors
Teodor T. Denchev
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Cvetomir M. Denchev

Assessment Status Notes

Preliminary red-list assessment: DD (Data Deficient)

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Restiosporium lepyrodiae is a host specific smut fungus which develops sori in capsules of Lepyrodia scariosa s. lat. (Restionaceae), replacing the seeds. Initially, the host plant is published as L. scariosa (Vánky 2006) but recently, a taxonomic revision of eastern Australian specimens, previously recognised as of L. scariosa, yielded description of four additional species (Briggs & Johnson 2012). The members of L. scariosa group are endemics to Australia and have restricted distribution areas in SE Queensland and/or New South Wales (Briggs & Johnson 2012).

The smut fungus, Restiosporium lepyrodiae, is known only from the type collection (New South Wales, Blue Mountains, Wall Lookout, ca 930 m alt.) where it was collected in 1996 (Vánky 2006, 2011; Vánky & Shivas 2008). Considering the ecology of the host plant species, it is most likely the collecting site was near the margin of a swamp in Blue Mountains Swamps that belong to the Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone ecological community. This community is included in the list of threatened ecological communities under section 181 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, ranked as Endangered, due to its restricted distribution and vulnerability to ongoing threats. The Blue Mountains Swamps are threatened by clearing for urban development, mowing, nutrient enrichment, water extraction (bores, tapping natural springs and building dams), grazing, weed invasion, and fire (Blue Mountains City Council, http://www.bmcc.nsw.gov.au/sustainableliving/environmentalinformation/livingcatchments/bluemountainsswamps/).

Considering the restricted area of occupancy, as well as the presence of ongoing threats for the habitat of the host plant, it was considered that Restiosporium lepyrodiae is a candidate for a threatened category. This fungus is assessed as DD because the modern identity of the associated plant needs to be established.

Preliminary red-list assessment: DD (Data Deficient)


Geographic range

Restiosporium lepyrodiae is known only from the type collection (New South Wales, Blue Mountains, Wall Lookout) where it was collected in 1996 (Vánky 2006, 2011; Vánky & Shivas 2008).


Population and Trends

There is no specific information on population size or trends. However, the host plant has limited distribution and is restricted to an area subjected to ongoing threats: fire, clearing for urban development, mowing, nutrient enrichment, water extraction (bores, tapping natural springs and building dams), grazing, and weed invasion..

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

The sori of Restiosporium lepyrodiae develop in capsules of Lepyrodia scariosa s. lat. (Restionaceae). The fungus is host-specific and depends on its host plant. The collecting site of R. lepyrodiae is near the margin of a swamp of the Blue Mountains Swamps, belonging to the Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone ecological community.

Wetlands (inland)Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]

Threats

The Blue Mountains Swamps are threatened by clearing for urban development, mowing, nutrient enrichment, water extraction (bores, tapping natural springs and building dams), grazing, weed invasion, and fire (Blue Mountains City Council, http://www.bmcc.nsw.gov.au/sustainableliving/environmentalinformation/livingcatchments/bluemountainsswamps/).

The most significant threat to the only known locality of the smut fungus is bush fires. The Blue Mountains is one of the most bush fire prone areas in the World. According to data from the Lithgow Bush Fire Management Committee, the area has on average 80 bush fires per year, of which up to six may be considered major fires (http://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/2385/Lithgow-BFRMP.pdf). In 2013, there was a major fire in the area between Lithgow and Bilpin. The fire burned around 55 000 ha of rugged scrubland over four weeks.

Residential & commercial developmentHousing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasAgriculture & aquacultureLivestock farming & ranchingSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingHuman intrusions & disturbanceRecreational activitiesNatural system modificationsFire & fire suppressionTrend Unknown/UnrecordedPollutionAgricultural & forestry effluents

Conservation Actions

The known locality of this smut fungus is included in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area.

Conservation of the host plant is needed. Ex situ conservation of the plant will not necessarily protect the fungus: in situ conservation is needed.

Land/water protectionSite/area protectionLand/water managementSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationEducation & awarenessAwareness & communications

Research needed

Further information is needed about population levels and distribution of the fungus.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Briggs, B.G. and Johnson, L.A.S. 2012. New species of Sporadanthus and Lepyrodia (Restionaceae) from eastern and western Australia. Telopea 14: 11–28.

Quirico, A.L. and Briggs, B.G. 1993. Lepyrodia scariosa R. Br. In: New South Wales, Flora online. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Lepyrodia~scariosa. Downloaded on 4 February 2015.

Vánky, K. 2006. The smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Restionaceae s. lat. Mycologia Balcanica 3: 19–46.

Vánky, K. 2011. Smut fungi of the world. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Vánky, K. and Shivas, R.G. 2008. Fungi of Australia: the smut fungi. In: Fungi of Australia Series. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra & CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.


Citation
Denchev, C.M., Shivas, R.G. & Denchev, T.T. 2015. Restiosporium lepyrodiae Vánky. In: The Global Fungal Red List Initiative. http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/510129/.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted