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Cortinarius pavelekii (Trappe, Castellano & P. Rawl.) Peintner & M.M. Moser

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Scientific name
Cortinarius pavelekii
Author
(Trappe, Castellano & P. Rawl.) Peintner & M.M. Moser
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Cortinariaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2015-04-23
IUCN Red List Category
EN
IUCN Red List Criteria
A2ce; B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)
Assessors
Castellano, M.
Reviewers
Dahlberg, A. & Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/75101587/75101592

Justification

Easily recognized hypogeous, mycorrhizal, sequestrate fungal species endemic to the Pacific Northwest of North America. Known only from coastal Sitka Spruce forests in a narrow geographic band (two miles/3.2 km wide) along the central coast of Oregon. Restricted to the fog drip  area with stika spruce on sand, potentially an area of maximum 500 km2.  Five of the 10 known sites are more than 30 years old and this species has not been recollected at these sites even though they have been surveyed numerous times in the last 15 years (>50% population reduction in the past three generations i.e. 50 years). Random Grid survey of 750 plots for two years across this region, including plots in this habitat type, did not reveal any new collections or sites for this species. Listed as a sensitive species by the USDA Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management in Oregon. Ranked as imperiled on the Global, National, and State rankings by the Oregon Heritage Program. Listed as critically imperiled (rank 1) by the Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center (2013). The population is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline due to loss of habitat (extent and quality). This species qualifies for listing as Endangered.



Taxonomic notes

This mycorrhizal, hypogeous, sequestrate species was originally described as Thaxterogaster pavelekii by Trappe, Castellano and P. Rawlinson in Trappe and Castellano (2000).  It was recombined as Cortinarius pavelekii (Trappe, Castellano and P. Rawlinson) Peintner and Moser in Peintner, Moser and Vilgalys (2002)

Geographic range

Endemic to the central coast of Oregon (United States) within an area of less than 500 km2.

Population and Trends

Known from only 10 sites along the central coast region of Oregon. Five sites are more than 30 years old and this species has not been recollected at these sites even though they have been surveyed numerous times in the last 15 years (Ferriel et al. 2014). Random Grid survey of 750 plots for two years across this region, including plots in this habitat type, did not reveal any new collections or sites for this species (Castellano 2007).

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Cortinarius pavelekii is a mycorrhizal fungus species so it is dependent on living host trees for population viability.  This mutually beneficial, symbiotic association between fungus and plant host roots conveys numerous critical advantages for plant host survival.  Mycorrhizal fungi are essentially the uptake organs for many nutrients i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, numerous micronutrients, i.e., boron, selenium, copper, and plays a major role in uptake of water.  Both the fungus and the plant host does not exist in nature without each other.

Particularly characterized by the sequestrate form, lack of violet or purple tints on the peridium and occurrence in coastal Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis ) forests (Castellano et al. 1999, Trappe and Castellano 2000). It forms exclusively mycorrhiza with the roots of mature to old-growth Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) and fruits February through July and in November. Sitka Spruce is restricted to a narrow geographic band along the moist, fog-drip influenced forests of coastal Oregon.  This band of land is less than 20 miles wide.  The known collection sites are all within two miles of the ocean. Occurrences are restricted to elevations under 500 ft. (150 m) and all soils are sand based, often old stabilized dunes. Dispersal is dependent on mycophagy (Castellano et al. 1999, Trappe and Castellano 2000). Home range of primary spore vector (small mammals) is less than two ha.

Threats

Mature old-growth Sitka Spruce forests are routinely harvested for wood products that has led to significant forest fragmentation that may impede fungus dispersal and gene flow. In addition, these low elevation forests are subject to logging, clearing of land for agricultural use, salt deposition from ocean spray, intense flooding or damage from Tsunami, and disturbance from human activities, i.e., road building, home construction, and campground development. Global climate change is potentially devastating to low elevation coastal forests in western North America.  Most of current known sites are at 50 ft elevation or less



Conservation Actions

Protect known sites from management activities and encroachment of urban development.

Use and Trade

The species is not known to be used.

Source and Citation

Castellano, M. 2015. Cortinarius pavelekii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T75101587A75101592. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T75101587A75101592.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

Country occurrence