• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Lentinula raphanica (Murrill) Mata & R.H. Petersen

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Scientific name
Lentinula raphanica
Author
(Murrill) Mata & R.H. Petersen
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Marasmiaceae
Assessment status
Proposed
Proposed by
Mariana Drewinski
Comments etc.
Mariana Drewinski

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Lentinula raphanica (Murrill) Mata & R.H. Petersen, Mycotaxon 79: 228 (2001)

The species was first described as Armillaria raphanica and later transferred to the genus Lentinula Earle.

Basionym:
Armillaria raphanica Murrill, Mycologia 35(4): 423 (1943)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Lentinula raphanica was described by Murrill (1943) as Armillaria raphanica based on material collected near Gainesville, in Florida State, southeast United States. Later, Mata & Petersen (2001) combined the species into the genus Lentinula. The species has a wide distribution, occurring in tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas. L. raphanica is a saprotrophic species, with medium to high detectability. The species grows abundantly on hardwood, mainly in Fagales wood. In Brazil, the species is found mostly in the Amazon Rainforest biome with only one record for the Atlantic Forest in Dense Ombrophilous Forest. The population size is estimated in 60,000 – 80,000 mature individuals and is predicted to decline by at least 20% over the next 30 years (three generations).


Geographic range

The species has a wide distribution, occurring in tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas. In North America, the species was reported only for the United States of America, in the states of Florida, Louisiana and Texas, located in the Gulf Coast region (Mata et al. 2001; Lewis et al. 2020).
  In the region of Central America and the Caribbean, L. raphanica is known for Costa Rica, in Puntarenas province; Puerto Rico, in Rio Grande, on the northeastern coast of the island; and Trinidad and Tobago, in Port of Spain, capital city of Trinidad and Tobago, on the west coast of the island of Trinidad (Mata et al. 2001).
In South America, the species was reported to the Amazonas State in southern Venezuela (Mata et al. 2001); to Colombia, in the Amazonas and Caquetá departments (Vasco-Palacios et al. 2005; Franco-Molano et al. 2005); and in Brazil to Amazonas and São Paulo States (Capelari et al. 2010).


Population and Trends

There are 35 collections deposited in herbaria in Brazil from 6 sites, all in the Amazon Forest. The voucher material mentioned by Thon & Royse (1999) from São Paulo was not found in the SP herbarium, but recently, the species was found in the Parque Estadual da Ilha do Cardoso, on the southern coast of São Paulo State, in the Atlantic Forest biome. Of the other countries where the species occurs, there are 46 collections from 35 sites. This is a species with medium to high detectability, growing abundantly on hardwood.
L. raphanica is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas and is expected to occur in another 1,500 - 2,000 locations with 40 individual per site (82 collections / 42 sites * 2 multiplied factor * 10 ramets). The population size is estimated in 60,000 – 80,000 mature individuals.
In Brazil, the species is found mostly in the Amazon Rainforest biome with only one record for the Atlantic Forest in Dense Ombrophilous Forest. The changes in the land use, the expansion of the cattle and soy industries, fire, logging and mining in the Amazon Forest have increased deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). As well as the Amazon Forest, the Atlantic Forest is also threatened. New areas of forest are still lost every year, mainly as a result of urban growth or the expansion of infrastructure. The Atlantic Forest is the most densely populated biome in Brazil (Joly et al. 2014).
Taking into account the loss of suitable habitat (Zhang et al. 2015, Silva et al. 2020, Rezende et al. 2018, Joly et al. 2014) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on the species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015), it is estimated that the species population will decline by at least 20% over the next 30 years (three generations).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Mushrooms in the genus Lentinula are saprotrophic, causing wood decay on logs of broadleaf trees, especially Fagales (Mata & Petersen 2001). L. raphanica exhibits gregarious growth and is generally found growing abundantly.
In Colombia, the species grows in humid tropical forest and was reported growing on different kinds of wood such as: Scleronema micranthum (Ducke) Ducke, Hymenaea cf. oblongifolia Huber, Caryocar gracile Wittm., Goupia glabra Aubl., Couepia dolichopoda Prance, Hevea sp., Couratari cf. stellata A. C. Sm., Lecythis chartacea O. Berg., Lecythis zabucajo Aubl., Parkia panurensis Benth. ex HC Hopkins, Brosimum utile (Kunth) Pittier, Iryanthera laevis Markgr. and Iryanthera tricornis Ducke (Vasco-Palacios et al. 2005; Vasco-Palacios et al. 2008).
According to Sanöma indigenous people of Brazilian Amazon, the species is found in the forest and also on the edges of cultivations sites, in the stumps of trees that were cut down. Sanuma et al. (2016) report the growth of the species in: Couma macrocarpa Barb.Rodr., Ficus sp., Pourouma sp., Micropholis sp., Leguminosae and Annonaceae wood. In Brazil it was reported to occur in the Amazon Forest and in Dense Ombrophilous Forest, in Atlantic Forest biome.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

The Amazon Forest is essential for maintaining the global climate system (Swann et al. 2015). The changes in the land use and the expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon have increased deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). Other threats are also constant such as fire, illegal gold mining, logging and lack of inspection and punishment by the Brazilian government (Condé et al. 2019). A number of modeling studies predict that about 50% of the Amazon basin will be replaced by savanna and arid land vegetation by the end of the 21st century (Zhang et al. 2015).
The Atlantic Forest has been suffering threats and loss of area over time. As a result of the long history of disturbance, most of the remaining Atlantic Forest is immersed in human-modified landscapes, with many small, edge-affected forest remnants (Joly et al. 2014). According to Rezende et al. (2018), there is only 28% of native vegetation cover for the Atlantic Forest biome, including both forest (26%) and non-forest native formations (2%). Habitat loss and fragmentation, logging, fire, hunting, and climate change have caused an alarming loss of biodiversity in the biome. The expansion of urban areas is also an important pressure further reducing the area of the Atlantic Forest (Joly et al. 2014).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasAgro-industry plantationsMining & quarryingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

In Brazil, most specimens were collected in conservation areas. To guarantee the occurrence of the species it is necessary to maintain the existing preservation areas as well as the creation of new areas. L. raphanica is an edible species with great gastronomic appreciation, so the collection and sustainable use of the species is important.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area managementHarvest managementAwareness & communicationsNational level

Research needed

There is only one record of occurrence of the species in the Atlantic Forest biome, in the state of São Paulo. New samplings are needed to better understand the distribution of the species in Brazil, as well as in other countries where the species probably occurs, but which has not been reported yet. The cultivation potential and medicinal properties of the species also need to be further studied.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyHarvest, use & livelihoodsPopulation trends

Use and Trade

The species is edible and has been reported to be used by traditional communities in Colombia (Franco-Molano et al. 2005; Vasco-Palacios et al. 2008) and Brazil (Sanuma et al. 2016). In Colombia, the Uitoto Indians, who inhabit the middle Caquetá region, consume the mushrooms in a broth or roasted wrapped in leaves (Vasco-Palacios et al. 2008).
In Brazil, L. raphanica is among the species most appreciated by the Sanoma indigenous people, part of the Yanomami people, who inhabit the Awaris region, in the mountain forests of the extreme northwest of Roraima, Brazil. They consume the mushrooms boiled in water with salt (Sanuma et al. 2016). The species is also traded by them in a mushroom mix that may contain more than 10 mushroom species and is a product of the Yanomami agricultural system. Cutler II et al. (2021) using DNA metabarcoding to identify fungal contents of several food products, found the presence of L. raphanica in the product made by Yanomami.

Food - human

Bibliography


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted