• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • Published

Aegis luteocontexta (Ryvarden & de Meijer) Westph.

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Scientific name
Aegis luteocontexta
Author
(Ryvarden & de Meijer) Westph.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Phanerochaetaceae
Assessment status
Published
Proposed by
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos
Assessors
Felipe Bittencourt, Adriana Calle, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Pablo Sandoval-Leiva, Aída M. Vasco-Palacios
Editors
Gregory Mueller
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Aegis luteocontexta is a conspicuous saprotrophic polypore species that was described 18 years ago. It is known from only 13 records distributed in 3 countries: Brazil, Costa Rica and Guyana. There are 3 subpopulations, one each in the Atlantic Forest of South and South-east Brazil, in rainforest mono-dominated by Dicymbe corymbosa of Guyana, and Mesoamerican forests of Costa Rica. The species has not been reported from the Amazon region of Brazil, but since it has been reported from Guyana, it likely occurs there. In the areas that have been intensively sampled, the species is rarely encountered and only 2-3 mature individuals occur at each site. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that it is rare throughout its range. Even though the area of potential suitable habitat is very large, the total population size is estimated to be no more than 6,000-9,000 mature individuals. This was calculated from an estimated 3,000 potential sites, each with 2-3 mature individuals. All three subpopulations occur in threatened Neotropical forests, which are declining in area and quality through continued deforestation, increase in fire frequency and intensity, and impacts of climate change (Myers et al. 2000, INPE 2020). The number of individuals is estimated to be smaller now than they were in the past, and the decline is predicted to continue into the future, with a projected decline in population size of at least 10% over the next 20 years, which covers three generations of this species. It is listed as Vulnerable.

 


Taxonomic notes

Aegis luteocontexta was originally described by Ryvarden Meijer (2002) as Antrodiella lueteocontexta Ryvarden Meijer 2002. It would be a Trametopsis based only on morphological characters (Gomez-Montoya et al. 2017); however, using phylogenetic analysis the species was transferred to Aegis by Westphalen et al. (2019).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Aegis luteocontexta is a rare, small and beautiful polypore with a bright yellow pileus surface. Although conspicuous, since its description in 2008 it is known from only 13 collections distributed for 3 countries in the Neotropical region. Most of records are from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil, which is under an array of deforestation, among other threats. Other habitats where it occurs are also threatened, its population is expected to be small and severely fragmented. More research on neotropical polypores are needed to better understand the distribution of this species, its biology and population trends.
Aegis luteocontexta is assessed as Critically Endangered [(CR) C2a(i)+D], having an inferred population of 68 mature individuals.


Geographic range

The species has been reported from the Atlantic Forests of South and South-east Brazil, including São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Ryvarden and Meijer 2002, Meijer 2006, 2008, Gomez-Montoya et al. 2017, Pires et al. 2017, Westphalen et al. 2019); Dicymbe corymbosa-dominated rainforests of Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana (part of Amazon Forest) (Aime et al. 2007); and Mesoamerican forests of Costa-Rica (Ruiz-Boyer 2006). The subpopulations of Guyana and Southern Brazil are separated by nearly 3,500 km, while the populations of Costa Rica and Guyana are separated by approximately 2,700 km. The Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of this species is estimated to be 6,620,975 km², based on the polygon formed by the known localities. There are at least eight localities of large area within the Southern Brazilian subpopulation. The species has not been reported from the Amazon region of Brazil, but since it has been reported from Guyana, it likely occurs there. In the areas that have been intensively sampled, the species is rarely encountered and only 2-3 mature individuals occur at each site. 


Population and Trends

Only three subpopulations are currently known for Aegis luteocontexta: one in Southern Brazil, with the highest number of the samples; and one each in Costa Rica and Guyana. There are only 13 known collections of the species, 11 from Brazil and one sample each from the other two countries. In the Southern Brazil subpopulation some collection points are separated by over 100 km, but the species likely occurs at additional sites within the region. As the species is conspicuous but has only been found very few times, even in sites that have been intensively sampled, Aegis luteocontexta is considered a rare species. Subpopulations were defined for this species using the circular buffer method with a scale of 1/10th max (Rivers et al. 2010). There are at least eight sites of large area within the Southern Brazilian subpopulation. The species has not been reported from the Amazon region of Brazil, but since it has been reported from Guyana, it likely occurs there. In the areas that have been intensively sampled, the species is rarely encountered and only 2-3 mature individuals occur at each site. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that it is rare throughout its range. Even though the area of potential suitable habitat is very large, the total population size is estimated to be no more than 6,000-9,000 mature individuals. This was calculated from an estimated 3,000 potential sites, each with 2-3 mature individuals.

All three subpopulations occur in threatened Neotropical forests, which are declining in area and quality through continued deforestation, increase in fire frequency and intensity, and impacts of climate change (Myers et al. 2000, INPE 2020). The subpopulation with the largest estimated number of individuals occurs in the Atlantic Forest domain, of which less than 30% of its natural coverage remains today (Rezende et al. 2018). The number of individuals are estimated to be smaller now than they were in the past, and the decline is predicted to continue into the future, with a projected decline in population size of at least 10% over the next 20 years, which covers three generations of this species.

 

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The species has been reported from multiple areas of neotropical rainforests: Atlantic Forest of South and South-east Brazil, Dicymbe corymbosa-dominated rainforests of Guyana and Mesoamerica nforests of Costa Rica. It likely occurs in the Amazon region as well. The species is saprotrophic, growing on dead wood and causing white rot. There are no data suggesting substrata specificity beyond growing on small branches of dead decomposing trees. 

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

All three subpopulations occur in areas regarded as biodiversity Hotspots for conservation priorities due to their high diversity, endemism rates and habitat loss (Myers et al. 2000). These areas continue to be threatened with further decline due to land use changes, deforestation, and ‘savannization’ of tropical forests of South America due to climate change in the next decades (Salazar et al. 2007). 

 

Small-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsSuppression in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

There is a need for habitat conservation and better management, including enhanced public policies, based on conservation plans.

Site/area protectionHabitat & natural process restorationAwareness & communicationsInternational levelNational levelSub-national level

Research needed

Additional mycological surveys are needed in additional sites of Atlantic Forest and the Amazon to identify more subpopulations and to better understand its biology. Revisions of existing herbarium specimens may reveal additional records of this species and help clarify its distribution. 

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyArea-based Management PlanHabitat trends

Use and Trade

There is no known uses/trade of this species.


Bibliography

Aime MC, Henkel TW, Ryvarden L (2007) Polyporoid fungi of Guyana: diversity, new species, and ecological roles. MSA Meeting at LSU, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Available at http://msafungi2.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/March-2008-Inoculum.pdf

Arroyo-Zeledón MS, & Zúñiga-Arias G (2018). Conservation of Biodiversity and Poverty in Costa Rica: Analysis by Planning Regions. Revista ABRA, 38(57), 33-49.

Bicknell JE, Collins MB, Pickles RS, McCann NP, Bernard CR, Fernandes DJ, Miller MGR, James SM, Williams AU, Struebig MTJ, Davies ZG, Smith RJ (2017) Designing protected area networks that translate international conservation commitments into national action. Biological Conservation, 214, 168-175.

Brazil (2018) Medida Provisória n° 852, de 2018 (Gestão de imóveis da União) - Medidas Provisórias. Congresso Nacional. Available at https://www.congressonacional.leg.br/materias/medidas-provisorias/-/mpv/134252

Foster P. (2001) The potential negative impacts of global climate change on tropical montane cloud forests. Earth-Science Reviews 55(12): 73-106

Gomez-Montoya N, Drechsler-Santos ER, Ferreira-Lopes V, Tomšovský M, Urcelay C, Robledo GL (2017) New insights on Trametopsis Tomšovský (Polyporales Gäum) based on phylogenetic evidences and morphological analyses of neotropical species. Phytotaxa, 311(2), 155-167.

Hoffman DM (2011). Do Global Statistics Represent Local Reality and Should They Guide Conservation Policy? Examples from Costa Rica. Conservation and Society 9(1), 16-24.

INPE - National Institute for Space Research. Earth Observation General Coordination. Monitoring Program of the Amazon and Other Biomes. Deforestation – Legal Amazon – Available at http://terrabrasilis.dpi.inpe.br/downloads/. Accessed on 20 March 2020.

Meijer AAR (2006) Preliminary list of the macromycetes from the Brazilian State of Paraná. Boletim do Museu Botânico Municipal 68, 1-55.

Meijer AAR (2008) Macrofungos notáveis das Florestas de Pinheiro-do-Paraná. Curitiba, Embrapa Florestas, 431 pp.

Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GA, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403(6772), 853.

Pires RM, Motato-Vásquez V, Westphalen MC, Gugliotta AM (2017) Polyporales and similar poroid genera (Basidiomycota) from Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, Brazil. Hoehnea 44 (1): 145-157.

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, Joly CA, Metzger JP, Strassburg BBN, Tabarelli M, Fonseca GA, Mittermeier RA (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 16(4): 208-214.

Rivers MC, Bachman SP, Meagher TR, Lughanda EN, Brummitt NA (2010) Subpopulations, locations and fragmentation: applying IUCN red list criteria to herbarium specimen data. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(7), 2071-2085.

Rocha LGM, Drummond JA, Ganem RS (2010). Parques nacionais Brasileiros: problemas fundiários e alternativas para a sua resolução. Revista de Sociologia e Política, 18(36), 205–226. doi:10.1590/s0104-44782010000200013

Ruiz-Boyer, A. (2006). Los hongos poliporoides (Basidiomycetes) del Área de Conservación Pacífico Central (ACOPAC), Costa Rica. Brenesia 65: 19-41.

Ryvarden, L. Meijer, A. A. R. (2002). Studies in neotropical polypores 14: New species from the state of Paraná, Brazil. Synopsis Fungorum, 15, 34-69.

Salazar, L. F., Nobre, C. A., & Oyama, M. D. (2007). Climate change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South America. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(9).

Westphalen, M. C., Tomšovský, M., Gugliotta, A. M., & Rajchenberg, M. (2019). An overview of Antrodiella and related genera of Polyporales from the Neotropics. Mycologia, 111(5), 813-831.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted