• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Amauroderma renidens (Bres.) Torrend

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Scientific name
Amauroderma renidens
Author
(Bres.) Torrend
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Ganodermataceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C2a(i)
Proposed by
MIND.Funga Initiative
Assessors
Felipe Bittencourt, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Diogo Rezende, Gerardo Robledo
Comments etc.
MIND.Funga Initiative, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

This conspicuous Amauroderma species is known from only three disjunct sites in Brazil. However, it is expected to occur over a wider area. Despite this it is likely to be rare, given how other Amauroderma species are more commonly found. In total the population size is estimated to be in the range 4,000-8,000 mature individuals, split into multiple subpopulations. A continuing decline in population size is inferred to be occurring as there has been extensive habitat loss and degradation in areas of its range. Therefore, A. renidens is listed as Vulnerable under criterion C2a(i).


Taxonomic notes

Amauroderma renidens (Bres.) Torrend 1920
≡ Ganoderma renidens Bres. 1896
≡ Fomes renidens (Bres.) Sacc. & P. Syd. 1899


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Since its proposition in 1896, Amauroderma renidens (Bres.) Torrend (as Ganoderma renidens Bres), was recorded only 3 times, and, thus, it is a very rare polypore. This species was collected in 2 localities in Atlantic Forest domain, one of most threatened ecosystems in Brazil, and in one locality in Pantanal, representing 3 known subpopulations. These rare occurrences associated to general threats in Brazilian ecosystems justify the consideration of this species under IUCN criteria.


Geographic range

The species is currently known from three disjunct sites in Brazil. It has been found in Santa Catarina state in Blumenau municipality (Bresadola 1896, type locality), and in Bahia state in Gongogi municipality (Torrend 1940, Góes-Neto 1999), both in the Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The third record is from Rio Negro municipality, Mato Grosso do Sul State, in a private property (Fazenda Santa Emília), in the southern part of the Pantanal domain, very close to the Cerrado domain (Bononi et al. 2008). The species likely occurs also in the Cerrado domain. The known sites of occurrence are very distant from each other, with approximately 1,800 Km between Rio Negro and Gongogi, and 1,050 Km between Blumenau and Rio Negro.


Population and Trends

The known sites of Amauroderma renidens represent only 3 records across 2 different phytogeographic domains in Brazil, the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. The species likely occurs also in the Cerrado domain, but has not been recorded. The known records exhibit a disjunct distribution. In areas that have been intensively sampled, the species is rarely encountered and the assumption is that it is rare throughout its range. Because of the large area of potential suitable habitat, around 1,000 sites of occurrence are estimated. Also, considering its rarity, each site is estimated to contain only 4-8 mature individuals. Total population size is estimated at 4,000-8,000 mature individuals, split into multiple subpopulations, none of which would contain >1,000 mature individuals.

Although the Pantanal and the Cerrado are ecosystems with a largely understudied Funga, the Atlantic Forest has the longest mycological history in the country, and several studies on the diversity and taxonomy of macrofungi have been carried in the domain, especially in Southern Brazil. Other Amauroderma spp. are found regularly throughout this range, so the scarcity of records of A. renidens is likely due to the rarity of this conspicuous polypore.

Nevertheless, the number of sites could be smaller than estimated, as areas where the species has been found in Atlantic Forest have been historically deforested, and this domain has only 28% of its original coverage remaining, mainly composed by forest fragments (Myers 2000, Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende 2018). Although the Pantanal is a considerably better-preserved ecosystem in Brazil, the accumulated deforestation in the biome is almost 20%, with an average of 0.33% habitat loss per year in recent years (Silva et al. 2011, SOS Pantanal 2017). The Cerrado has lost over half of it’s more than 2 million square kilometers, mainly in the last 50 years (Rocha et al. 2011, INPE 2020). Most of this habitat loss happened in the southern parts of the Cerrado, closer to where the species is known to occur. The deforestation rates in the biome has decreased in the last decade, stabilizing to 0.33% per year in 2018 and 2019 (INPE 2020), but are expected to increase due to current political trends of loosening environmental policies and legislation. On top of that, only 8.3% of the Cerrado’s area is currently under protection in conservation units (Françoso et al. 2015).

Overall, due to the past and ongoing decline in its habitat cover and quality, the species’ population decline is suspected to be at least of 10% in the next 20 years.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This species is saprobic, wood-decomposer causing white-rot on dead wood, occurring in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal domains. Also, it is expected that the species occurs in the Cerrado domain.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Swamp ForestMoist Savana

Threats

In general, the threats to A. renidens are the degradation and fragmentation of its habitat, mainly related to loss of territory for agriculture, such as soybeans and large scale cattle ranching, growth of urban areas, fires and continuous secondary effects of previous deforestation, such as climate change, “secondarization” and “savannization” (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Scarano & Ceotto 2015,  Alho et al. 2019). Possibly, some of the sites where the species has been recorded no longer exist as natural areas.

Housing & urban areasAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingIncrease in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughtsOther impacts

Conservation Actions

The main actions to preserve the species are the implementation of conservation units and the enforcement of protection policies, in order to preserve its habitat and prevent further loss.

Site/area protectionAwareness & communicationsPolicies and regulationsNational level

Research needed

More surveys in unexplored areas, such as the Cerrado and other areas of the Pantanal, are needed to understand the distribution and ecology of the species.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Alho, J. R.; Mamede, S. B.; Benites, M.; Andrade, B. S.; Sepúlveda, J. J. O. 2019. Threats to the biodiversity of the Brazilian Pantanal due to land use and occupation. Ambiente & Sociedade 22, e01891.

Bononi, V. L. R.; Oliveira, A. K. M.; Quevedo, J. R.; Gugliotta, A. M. 2008. Fungos macroscópicos do Pantanal do Rio Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Hoehnea 35(4): 489-511.

Bresadola, J. 1986. Fungi Brasilienses lecti a cl. Dr. Alfredo Möller. Hedwigia 35(5): 276-302.

Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Disponível em:

<

http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/ >. Acesso em: 24 mar. 2020

Françoso, R.D., Brandão, R., Nogueira, C.C., Salmona, Y.B., Machado, R.B., & Colli, G R. 2015. Habitat loss and the effectiveness of protected areas in the Cerrado Biodiversity Hotspot. Natureza & Conservação, 13(1): 35–40. doi:10.1016/j.ncon.2015.04.001

Furtado, J. S. 1967. Species of Amauroderma Murr. with the laccate appearence of Ganoderma Karst. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État de Bruxelles 34: 309-317.

Furtado, J. S. 1981. Taxonomy of Amauroderma (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae). Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 34: 1-109.

Góes-Neto, A. 1999. Polypore Diversity in the State of Bahia, Brazil: a Historical Review. Mycotaxon 72: 43-56.

Loguercio-Leite, C.; Campos-Santana, M.; Gerlach, A.; Gutjahr, M.; Trierveiler-Pereira, L.; Drechsler-santos, E. R.; Baltazar, J. M. 2009. Résumé of macromycetes from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Insula 38: 1-14.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Fonseca, G. A.; Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772): 853.

Rivers, M. C.; Bachman, S. P.; Meagher, T. R.; Lughanda, E. N.; Brummitt, N. A. 2010. Subpopulations, locations and fragmentation: applying IUCN red list criteria to herbarium specimen data. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(7): 2071-2085.

Rezende, C.L., Scarano, F.R., Assad, E.D., Joly, C.A., Metzger, J.P., Strassburg, B.B.N., Tabarelli, M., Fonseca, G.A., Mittermeier, R. A. (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. doi:10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.002

Rocha, G.F., Ferreira, L.G., Ferreira, N.C., Ferreira, M.E. 2011. Deforestation Detection in The Cerrado Biome Between 2002 and 2009: Patterns, Trends and Impacts, Revista Brasileira de Cartografia 63(03): 341-349.

Ryvarden, L. 2004. Neotropical polypores. Part 1. Synopsis Fungorum 19: 62–63.
Scarano, F. B.; Ceotto, P. 2015. Brazilian Atlantic forest: impact, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change. Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 2319–2331.

Silva, J.S.V., Abdon, M.M., Silva, S.M.A., Moraes, J.A. 2011. Evolution of Deforestation in the Brazilian Pantanal and Surroundings in the Timeframe 1976-2008. Geografia, 36: 35-55.

SOS Pantanal. 2017. Atlas da Vegetação e Uso na Bacia do Alto Paraguai - BAP. Available at

Accessed 08 April 2020.

Tabarelli, M.; Aguiar, A. V.; Ribeiro, M. C.; Metzger, J. P.; & Peres, C. A. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons
from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation, 143(10): 2328–2340. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.02.005
Torrend, C. 1940. As Poliporáceas da Bahia e estados limítrofes. Anais da 1ª Reunião Sul-Americana de Botânica, 1938, Rio de Janeiro, 2: 325-341.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted