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  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
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Amanita arenicola O.K. Mill. & Lodge

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Scientific name
Amanita arenicola
Author
O.K. Mill. & Lodge
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A3c
Proposed by
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez
Assessors
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez, Roberto Garibay Orijel
Editors
Roberto Garibay Orijel
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Amanita arenicola is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated to Coccoloba uvifera in some Caribbean islands. Its distribution range is limited to the coastal line, this ecosystem is highly threatened by touristic activities and constructions. Additionally, climate change scenarios predict that sea level will increase 1-2 m in the Caribbean in the next century with a concurrent 1,300 km2 coastal land area loss (Clark et al., 2015; Simpson 2017). In consequence this ecosystem is in severe risk.

Justification

Amanita arenicola should be listed as Endangered under the criteria A3c as its population is going to reduce at least 50% in the next 100 years do to a reduction in AOO by sea level increase, urbanization and increase of hurricanes and flooding.


Taxonomic notes

This species has the characters of subgenus Amanita sect. Vaginatae because its lack of partial veil, nonamyloid spores and with fragile white volva (Miller et al., 2000). It grows in beach sand associated with Coccoloba uvifera in the Caribbean coast.
Amanita sinicoflava Tulloss (Tulloss 1988) looks similar but its stipe has fibrils. Amanita antillana Pegler (Pegler 1983) described from Lesser Antillies, is associated with Coccoloba diversifolia and also belongs sect. Vaginatae but pilleus colors are different.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Amanita arenicola is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated to Coccoloba uvifera in some Caribbean islands. Its distribution range is limited to the coastal line, this ecosystem is highly threatened by touristic activities and constructions. Additionally, climate change scenarios predict that sea level will increase 1-2 m in the Caribbean in the next century with a concurrent 1,300 km2 coastal land area loss (Clark et al., 2015; Simpson 2017). In consequence this ecosystem is in severe risk.
Amanita arenicola should be listed as Endangered under the criteria A3c as its population is going to reduce at least 50% in the next 100 years do to a reduction in AOO by sea level increase, urbanization and increase of hurricanes and flooding.


Geographic range

In the coast of the Caribean Islands. Puerto Rico, Islands of Anguila and Guana in the Virgin Islands, Bahamas


Population and Trends

From the original publication there are known 11 subpopulations. It is probably more widespread in Coccoloba uvifera stands, because as new reports of the fruit bodies appear in the Caribbean coast yearly (Sené et al., 2015). No more than 100 potential subpopulations due to its limited are of distribution and narrow ecological range. However the populations are in decline due to the harsh effects of constant hurricanes and flooding.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This species is ectomycorrhizal and associated with Coccoloba uvifera in the sand dunes of Caribbean islands.

Coastal Sand Dunes

Threats

This species was described from sand dunes related to Coccoloba uvifera. Constatly sand dunes are transformed to touristic stations. Also, if glacier melt continue and sea level rises as predicted, the lowlands of the Caribbean islands will disappear by floods to 2100 (Clark et al., 2015; Laffoley & Baxter, 2016).

Tourism & recreation areasUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Global warming mitigation


Research needed

To monitor the effect of hurricanes and flooding in known populations and look for additional population in other Caribbean islands.

Population trends

Use and Trade

unknown


Bibliography

Clark PU, Church JA, Gregory JM, Payne AJ. 2015. Recent Progress in Understanding and Projecting Regional and Global Mean Sea Level Change. Current Climate Change Reports 1: 224–246.
Laffoley D, Baxter JM. 2016. Explaining ocean warming: causes, scale, effects and consequences.
Miller OK, Lodge DJ, Baroni TJ. 2000. New and interesting ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Islands. Mycologia 92: 558–570.
Pegler DN. 1983. Agaric flora of the Lesser Antilles. Kew Bulletin Add Series IX: 1-668.
Séne S, Avril R, Chaintreuil C, Geoffroy A, Ndiaye C, Diédhiou AG, Sadio O, Courtecuisse R, Sylla SN, Selosse MA, et al. 2015. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). Mycorrhiza 25: 547–559.
Tulloss RE. 1988. Amanita sinicoflava: a new species from Eastern North America. Mycotaxon 32:421-431.
Simpson, M. C. (2017). Quantification and Magnitudeof Losses and Damages Resulting from the Impacts of Climate Change: Modelling the Transformational Impacts and Costs of Sea Level Rise in the Caribbean (Key Points andSummary for Policy Makers Document).


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted