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  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
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Amanita cystidiosa O.K. Mill. & Lodge

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Scientific name
Amanita cystidiosa
Author
O.K. Mill. & Lodge
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN
Proposed by
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez
Assessors
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez, Roberto Garibay Orijel
Editors
Roberto Garibay Orijel

Assessment Notes

Amanita cystidiosa is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated to Coccoloba uvifera the Caribbean. Its distribution range is limited to the coastal line, this ecosystem is highly threatened by touristic activities and constructions. Additionally, climate change scenarios predict that sea level will increase 1-2 m in the Caribbean in the next century with a concurrent 1,300 km2 coastal land area loss (Clark et al., 2015; Simpson 2017). In consequence this ecosystem is in severe risk.

Justification

Amanita cystidiosa should be listed as Endangered under the criteria A3c as its population is going to reduce at least 50% in the next 100 years do to a reduction in AOO by sea level increase, urbanization and increase of hurricanes and flooding.


Taxonomic notes

Amanita cystidiosa belongs to Amanita sect. Amanita, it can be distinguished from the species of this section by the prescence of cheilocystidia (Miller et al., 2000). It associates with Coccoloba uvifera at beach sand in the Caribbean. Amanita arenicola share habitat with A. cystidiosa, however both morphologies contrast. Amanita cystidiosa has yellow pileus with white universal veil, and spores 7-10.5 x 4.8-6.0 um.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Amanita cystidiosa is an ectomycorrhizal fungi associated to Coccoloba uvifera in the Caribbean. Its distribution range is limited to the coastal line, and this ecosystem is high threatened by the touristic activities and constructions. Additionally, climate change scenarios predict, the sea level will increase 1-2 m in the Caribbean in the next century with a concurrent 1,300 km2 coastal land area lost (Clark et al., 2015; Simpson 2017). In consequence this ecosystem is in severe risk.
Amanita cystidiosa should be listed as Endangered under the criteria A3c as its population is going to reduce at least 50% in the next 100 years do to a reduction in AOO by sea level increase, urbanization and flooding.


Geographic range

Beaches in Puerto Rico


Population and Trends

From the original publication there is known 1 subpopulation. It is probably more widespread in Coccoloba uvifera stands, because new reports of the fruit bodies appear in the Caribbean coast yearly (Sené et al., 2015). No more than 100 potential subpopulations due to its limited area of distribution and narrow ecological range are expected. However the populations are in decline due to the harsh effects of constant hurricanes and flooding that will increase with global warming and sea level rise.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Ectomycorrhizal fungi and associated with Coccoloba uvifera in sand dunes of Caribbean islands

Coastal Sand Dunes

Threats

This species was described from sand dunes related to Coccoloba uvifera. Constatly sand dunes are transformed to touristic stations. Also, if glacier melt continue and sea level rises as predicted, the lowlands of the Caribbean islands will disappear by floods to 2100 (Clark et al., 2015; Laffoley & Baxter, 2016). Climate change scenarios predict that sea level will increase 1-2 m in the Caribbean in the next century with a concurrent 1,300 km2 coastal land area loss (Clark et al., 2015; Simpson 2017).

Tourism & recreation areasUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesStorms & flooding

Conservation Actions

Site protection agsinst touristic developments and global warming mitigation.

Site/area protectionInternational level

Research needed

Visit the same localities is necessary to ensure the population type persist. Studies from Coccoloba’s ectomycorrhizal fungal community in other islands (Senè et al., 2015; Polme et al., 2018) lack of information about A. cystidiosa. We need to increase fruitbodie sampling in other caribbean islands.

Population size, distribution & trendsPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade

Unknown


Bibliography

Clark PU, Church JA, Gregory JM, Payne AJ. 2015. Recent Progress in Understanding and Projecting Regional and Global Mean Sea Level Change. Current Climate Change Reports 1: 224–246.
Laffoley D, Baxter JM. 2016. Explaining ocean warming: causes, scale, effects and consequences.
Miller OK, Lodge DJ, Baroni TJ. 2000. New and interesting ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Islands. Mycologia 92: 558–570.
Polme S, Bahram M, Koljalg U, Tedersoo L. 2017. Biogeography and specificity of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Coccoloba uvifera. In. Tedersoo L. (ed.). Biogregraphy of mycorrhizal symbiosis. Ecological Studies 230, Srpinger.
Séne S, Avril R, Chaintreuil C, Geoffroy A, Ndiaye C, Diédhiou AG, Sadio O, Courtecuisse R, Sylla SN, Selosse MA, et al. 2015. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). Mycorrhiza 25: 547–559.
Simpson, M. C. (2017). Quantification and Magnitudeof Losses and Damages Resulting from the Impacts of Climate Change: Modelling the Transformational Impacts and Costs of Sea Level Rise in the Caribbean (Key Points andSummary for Policy Makers Document).


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted