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  • Under Assessment
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Phallus glutinolens (Möller) Kuntze

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Scientific name
Phallus glutinolens
Author
(Möller) Kuntze
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Phallales
Family
Phallaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU VU C1+2a(ii)
Proposed by
Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira
Assessors
Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos
Editors
Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira
Comments etc.
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Phallus glutinolens is a species endemic to Brazil, occurring in fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern and southeastern regions. Up to date, there are only a few records of the species from six different sites. The total population is estimated at around 4,800 mature individuals, in one subpopulation. Based on the habitat decline within the area, we suspect a population decline around 10% in the last three generations (20 years). Phallus glutinolens is, therefore, assessed as Vulnerable VU C1+2a(ii).


Taxonomic notes

Phallus glutinolens (Möller) Kuntze was first described by Möller (1895) in the genus Ithyphallus Gray, a genus erected to accommodate phalloid species without indusium (veil). In 1898, the species was combined to the genus Phallus Junius ex L. by Kuntze. An emendation for the species was published by Trierveiler-Pereira et al. (2009) to add morphological data of mature basidiomata. Other synonyms than Ithyphallus glutinolens Möller are not known.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Phallus glutinolens is a rare, endemic species from Southern and Southeastern Brazil, occurring in some preserved fragments of Atlantic Forest, one of the Earth’s biodiversity hotspots with high levels of diversity and endemism.


Geographic range

Phallus glutinolens was first discovered in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina (Möller, 1895). Many years later, the species was found in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Braun, 1932; Rick, 1961). More recently, the species was found again in Santa Catarina (Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2009; 2019; speciesLink, 2021) and later, for the first time, it was reported from Southeastern Brazil (Fernandes et al., 2021). The species is expected to occur in fragments of Dense Ombrophilous Forest in Southern and Southeastern Brazil.
Records from Argentina, Tucumán province (Wright, 1960), are probably misidentifications, since the specimens described have a particular habitat and ecology (growing among grass in open fields) which more closely resembles the habitat described for members of Itajahya Möller (Hernandez Caffot et al., 2018).


Population and Trends

There are eight collections of the species from six different sites. It is likely a rare species, and it is expected to only occur along the Atlantic Forest in the Dense Ombrophilous Forest in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. We estimate that there are up to 400 additional potential sites. This gives a total population estimate of around 4,800 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation.
The Atlantic Forest has been deforested over decades, and the remaining fragments are suffering from biomass and biodiversity erosion. The Atlantic Forest is one of the most fragmented tropical/subtropical forests in the world, and only around 28% percent of the original forest in Brazil is left, much of it in small, unconnected fragments (Rezende et al., 2018).
Population decline was estimated in light of extensive loss of suitable habitat (Rezende et al., 2018) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson, 2003; Haddad et al., 2015). Based on this information, we precautionarily assume there has been a habitat loss of at least 10% within the past three generations (20 years) and that this also equates to a population decline of the fungus of at least 10% or more within this timeframe.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Phallus glutinolens is a saprotrophic species that grows on wood debris or litterfall, inside preserved forest areas. It has a sweet smell when fresh and a tarlike smell when dry (Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2009). In Brazil, it is characteristic of the Atlantic Forest, with all records from Ombrophilous Dense Forest near the coast (up to 80 km distant from the coast). The species is not difficult to recognize in the field, being highly detectable since its light-colored basidiomes contrast with the litterfall and having a characteristic smell (Trierveiler-Pereira et al., 2009). Since the species occurs in wood debris or litterfall, we estimate that three generations = 20 years.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

Phallus glutinolens is directly impacted by Atlantic Forest Biome threats, which has been losing its biodiversity along the time. Only 28% of its natural coverage remains, becoming an extremely patchy ecosystem and secondary forests (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018).
The threats involve urbanization, industrial and silvicultural centers that lead to the pollution (Galindo & Câmara, 2003). Furthermore, there is a great illegal timber extraction and intensive land use, contributing to Atlantic forest deterioration and inhabiting species decay.

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

The main action to preserve the species is the protection of its habitat and creation of new conservation areas to harbor the probable microhabitats to which the Atlantic Forest may be restricted in the future. The preservation of pristine forests could be critical for the maintenance of this species, since it has only been found in preserved areas. Also, forest protection policies must be taken to assure that the protected Atlantic Forest areas reach a mature state.

Site/area protectionSite/area managementAwareness & communicationsPolicies and regulations

Research needed

More studies are necessary to better understand the species distribution and ecology and population trends.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

None known.

Unknown

Bibliography

Berglund H, Jonsson BG. 2003. Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biological Conservation 112(3): 319–328.

Braun B. 1932. Estudo sobre as phalloideas riograndenses. Relatório do Ginásio Anchieta (Porto Alegre) 1932: 5–28.

Fernandes NSR, Teixeira WF, Baltazar JM, Trierveiler-Pereira L. 2021. Contribuição ao conhecimento de fungos gasteroides (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Hoehnea (in press). https://doi.org/10.1590/2236-8906-43/2020.

Galindo C,  Câmara I. 2003. The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, Washington, USA.

Haddad NM, Brudvig LA, Clobert J et al. 2015. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 1: e1500052.

Hernandez Caffot ML, Hosaka K, Domínguez LS,  Urcelay C. 2018. Molecular and morphological data validate the new combination of Lysurus sphaerocephalum from Argentina, with some additional records on Phallales (Agaricomycetes). Mycologia, 110(2): 419–433.

Möller A. 1895. Brasilische Pilzblumen. Gustav Fischer, Jena, Germany.

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, Joly CA, Metzger JP, Strassburg BBN, Tabarelli M, Fonesca GA, Mittermeier RA. 2018. From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in ecology and conservation 16: 208–214.

Rick J. 1961. Basidiomycetes eubasidii in Rio Grande do Sul – Brasilia 6. Iheringia, Série Botanica
9: 451–479.

SpeciesLink. 2021. Available at: https://specieslink.net/. (Accessed: 29 September 2021).

Trierveiler-Pereira L, Loguercio-Leite C, Calonge FD, Baseia IG. 2009. An emendation of Phallus glutinolens. Mycological Progress 8: 377–380.

Trierveiler-Pereira L, Meijer AAR, Silveira RMB. 2019. Phallales (Agaricomycetes, Fungi) from Southern Brazil. Studies in Fungi 4(1): 162–184.

Tabarelli M, Aguiar AV, Ribeiro MC, Metzger JP, Peres CA. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation 143(10): 2328–2340.

Wright JE. 1960. Faloideas Sud y Centroamericanas. Lilloa 30: 339–359.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted