• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Sporisorium elionuri-tristis Vánky

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Scientific name
Sporisorium elionuri-tristis
Author
Vánky
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Rust and Smut
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Ustilaginomycetes
Order
Ustilaginales
Family
Ustilaginaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN B2ab(ii,iii)
Proposed by
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Assessors
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Contributors
Teodor T. Denchev
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

Preliminary red-list assessment: EN B2ab(ii,iii)

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Sporisorium elionuri-tristis is a host specific smut fungus which develops sori in ovaries of Elionurus tristis (Poaceae).

The host plant, Elionurus tristis, is endemic to Madagascar, with distribution restricted to the Malagasy Highlands (extent of occurrence less than 20 000 km2). It is recorded from only a few localities in three regions: Analamanga, Amoron’i Mania, and Haute Matsiatra. This plant has not been assessed but it merits to be assessed. Because the smut fungus is host specific, it cannot exceed the extent of occurrence of its host plant.

Sporisorium elionuri-tristis is only known from the type locality (south of Ambositra, Malagasy Highlands, central Madagascar) where it was collected in 1964 (Vánky 2011; Vánky et al. 2011). This species is threatened by habitat loss and degradation. With the help of an aerial photograph-based analysis of randomly sampled sites of the Malagasy Highlands, it was demonstrated that significant part of the grasslands have been converted to crops fields, farm trees and built-up areas (Kull 2012). The typical agricultural system for that region is centered on intensive smallholder production of wet rice and a variety of dry-land crops such as corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, beans, fruit trees, and market vegetables (Kull 1998, 2008). The majority of the highland landscape have also been heavily modified by long-term history of domesticated grazing and anthropogenic fire regimes (Kull 2012).

Preliminary red-list assessment: EN B2ab(ii,iii) (Endangered)

This is an endangered parasitic fungus on a declining and apparently threatened host plant. It fulfills B-criterion using AOO (area of occupancy estimated not to exceed 500 km2) and meets EN B2, regarding subcriteria a (number of locations) and b (ii, iii) (continuing decline – inferred or projected – in the area of occupancy, and area and quality of the habitat).


Geographic range

Sporisorium elionuri-tristis is only known from the type locality (south of Ambositra, Malagasy Highlands, central Madagascar) where it was collected in 1964 (Vánky 2011, Vánky et al. 2011).

The host plant, Elionurus tristis, is endemic to Madagascar and has a restricted distribution area (extent of occurrence less than 20 000 km2).


Population and Trends

There is no specific information on population size or trends. However, the host plant is restricted to a few sites within less than 20 000 km2 (EOO) within an area subjected to ongoing and increasing agricultural encroachment. The distribution of the host plant is severely fragmented.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

Sporisorium elionuri-tristis is a smut fungus which develops sori in ovaries of Elionurus tristis (Poaceae). The fungus is host-specific and depends on its host plant.

Elionurus tristis is a perennial, caespitose grass, with erect culms ca 15–60 cm high which grows in grasslands. It is recorded from the mountainous central highlands.

SavannaMoist Savana

Threats

Sporisorium elionuri-tristis is threatened by habitat loss and degradation. With the help of an aerial photograph-based analysis of randomly sampled sites of the Malagasy Highlands, it was demonstrated that significant part of the grasslands have been converted to crops fields, farm trees and built-up areas (Kull 2012). The typical agricultural system for that region is centered on intensive smallholder production of wet rice and a variety of dry-land crops such as corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, beans, fruit trees, and market vegetables (Kull 1998, 2008). The majority of the highland landscape have also been heavily modified by long-term history of domesticated grazing and anthropogenic fire regimes (Kull 2012).

Residential & commercial developmentHousing & urban areasAgriculture & aquacultureAnnual & perennial non-timber cropsSmall-holder farmingWood & pulp plantationsSmall-holder plantationsLivestock farming & ranchingSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingNatural system modificationsFire & fire suppression

Conservation Actions

The only known locality of this smut fungus is not included in a protected area. Assessment and conservation of the host plant is needed. Ex situ conservation of the plant will not necessarily protect the fungus: in situ conservation is needed.

Land/water protectionSite/area protectionLand/water managementSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationEducation & awarenessAwareness & communications

Research needed

Further information is needed about population levels and distribution of the fungus.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Kull, C.A. 1998. Leimavo revisited: Agrarian land-use change in the highlands of Madagascar. Professional Geographer 50: 163–176.

Kull, C.A. 2008. Saving land with a spade: Human landscape transformations in the Madagascar Highland. In: J.C. Kaufmann (ed.). Greening the Great Red Island: Madagascar in Nature and Culture, pp. 113–135. Africa Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.

Kull, C.A. 2012. Air photo evidence of historical land cover change in the highlands: Wetlands and grasslands give way to crops and woodlots. Madagascar Conservation & Development 7: 144–152.

Vánky, K. 2011. Smut Fungi of the World. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Vánky, K., Vánky, C. and Denchev, C.M. 2011. Smut fungi in Africa – a checklist. Mycologia Balcanica 8: 1–77.


Citation
Denchev, C.M. & Denchev, T.T. 2015. Sporisorium elionuri-tristis Vánky. In: The Global Fungal Red List Initiative. http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/463985/.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted