• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Ustilago lepturi-xerophili Vánky

Go to another Suggested Species...

Scientific name
Ustilago lepturi-xerophili
Author
Vánky
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Rust and Smut
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Ustilaginomycetes
Order
Ustilaginales
Family
Ustilaginaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN B2ab(ii,iii)
Proposed by
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Assessors
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Contributors
Teodor T. Denchev
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

Preliminary red-list assessment: EN B2ab(ii,iii) (Endangered)

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Ustilago lepturi-xerophili is a host specific smut fungus which develops sori in ovaries of Lepturus xerophilus (Poaceae).

The host plant, Lepturus xerophilus, is endemic to Australia and has a very restricted distribution area from NE Kimberley (Western Australia) and the northern part of Northern Territory to the base of Cape York (Queensland) (Mallett 2005; ALA 2015). This species has small and relatively isolated subpopulations and is severely fragmented. Lepturus xerophilus has an area of occupancy that is considerably less than 500 km2 (ALA 2015). It grows on limestone. It is listed under the Queensland Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 2006, assessed as Near Threatened.

The smut fungus, Ustilago lepturi-xerophili, is known only from the type collection (Queensland, Chillagoe) where it was collected in 1938 (Vánky & Shivas 2008; Shivas 2010; Vánky 2011). This location is threatened by mining. Near Chillagoe there are operational mines for marble, limestone, gold, copper, and zink. Further, the host plant is threatened by an invasive plant species, Bothriochloa pertusa (Indian couch grass) that is widespread in the region and displaces Lepturus xerophilus through direct competition (http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/managing/plans-strategies/statements/pdf/chillagoe-mungana-caves.pdf).

Preliminary red-list assessment: EN B2ab(ii,iii) (Endangered)

Ustilago lepturi-xerophili is red-listed as a threatened species because it fulfills B-criterion using AOO (area of occupancy estimated not to exceed 500 km2) and meets EN B2, regarding subcriteria a (number of locations) and b (ii & iii) (continuing decline – observed, inferred or projected – in the area of occupancy, and area, extent, and quality of the habitat). This smut fungus is threatened by human impact and an invasive species.


Geographic range

Ustilago lepturi-xerophili is known only from the type collection (Queensland, Chillagoe) where it was collected in 1938 (Vánky & Shivas 2008; Shivas 2010; Vánky 2011).


Population and Trends

Not enough information is available to permit comment on population levels.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

The sori of Ustilago lepturi-xerophili develop in ovaria of Lepturus xerophilus (Poaceae). The fungus is host-specific and depends on its host plant.

Lepturus xerophilus is an annual herb, with culms ca 30–60 cm long which grows in the Australian Tropical Savanna. This plant grows on limestone. The collecting site of Ustilago lepturi-xerophili is in close proximity of the town of Chillagoe.

Savanna

Threats

The location of Ustilago lepturi-xerophili is threatened by mining. Near Chillagoe there are operational mines for marble, limestone, gold, copper, and zink. Further, the host plant is threatened by an invasive plant species, Bothriochloa pertusa (Indian couch grass) that is widespread in the region and displaces Lepturus xerophilus through direct competition (http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/managing/plans-strategies/statements/pdf/chillagoe-mungana-caves.pdf).

Energy production & miningMining & quarryingNatural system modificationsFire & fire suppressionTrend Unknown/UnrecordedInvasive & other problematic species, genes & diseasesInvasive non-native/alien species/diseasesNamed species

Conservation Actions

The only known locality of this smut fungus is not included in a protected area. Conservation of the host plant is needed. Ex situ conservation of the plant will not necessarily protect the fungus: in situ conservation is needed.

Land/water protectionSite/area protectionLand/water managementSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationEducation & awarenessAwareness & communications

Research needed

Further information is needed about population levels and distribution of the fungus.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

ALA. 2015. Lepturus xerophilus. In: Atlas of Living Australia. Available online: http://bie.ala.org.au/species/Lepturus+xerophilus#. Downloaded on 22 April 2015.

Mallett, K. (ed.) 2005. Flora of Australia. Volume 44B, Poaceae 3. Australian Biological Resources Study/CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Shivas, R. 2010. Lepturus smut (Ustilago lepturi-xerophili). Available online: PaDIL – http://www.padil.gov.au. Downloaded on 9 February 2015.

Vánky, K. 2011. Smut Fungi of the World. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Vánky, K. and Shivas, R.G. 2008. Fungi of Australia: the smut fungi. In: Fungi of Australia Series. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra & CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.


Citation
Denchev, C.M., Shivas, R.G. & Denchev, T.T. 2015. Ustilago lepturi-xerophili Vánky. In: The Global Fungal Red List Initiative. http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/463982/.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted