This species has a very restricted known distribution limited to a vegetation type under documented decline. Only one of the known localities is inside a protected area, and that may be the only subpopulation that is in a stable habitat. The rest of the known localities are in suburban or urban environments that are subject to increased disturbance or destruction. It is assessed under criterion A3c because of the predicted significant decline of its habitat and associated host over then next 30-45 years.
Bolbitius jalapensis was first reported in 1909 and is only known from five localities, all in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Four of those localities are tropical montane cloud (TMC) forests. There is no information about vegetation type for the fifth locality. Since it was fist discovered, this species has been collected only five times, the most recent specimen was collected in 1983. . Targeted fieldwork at a number of additional sites with similar habitats suggest that this species is rare and restricted to TMC forests. Based on climate change models, TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007). Therefore, it is assessed as VUA3c based on the anticipated decline in suitable habitat and its obligate host. Based on its rareness and restricted distribution, it possibly could also be listed under C1, but the actual number of mature individuals are difficult to estimate without further extensive fieldwork.
This species was first described by Murrill (1912) in the genus Mycena, but that same year Murrill transferred it to Bolbitius.
Mycena jalapensis Murrill, Mycologia 4(2): 73 (1912)
Bolbitius jalapensis (Murrill) Murrill, Mycologia 4(6): 332 (1912)
R. Watling inspected the type specimen in 1965 (Tulig et al 2017), corroborating it as a distinct species, and reassessed the specimen collected in Cuba as a species distinct from M. jalapensis .
This species was described by Murrill as Mycena jalapensis in 1912. Type specimen was collected in 1909 in a forest near the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. Bolbitius jalapensis is only known from five localities, all in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Four of those localities are tropical montane cloud forests. There is no information about vegetation type for the fifth locality. Since it was fist discovered, this species has been collected only five times, the most recent specimen was collected in 1983. This species in only known from Mexico and its habit is a vegetation type that is under severe pressure (Bubb et al. 2004).
This species is only known from five localities, all in the state of Veracruz Mexico. Type locality: Forest near Xalapa, 1500 m alt.; Instituto de Ecologia, Xalapa, 1983; Municipality of Fortin de las Flores, Veracruz 1983; Municipality of Banderilla, Potrero de Agua Santa, Veracruz, 1957 ; Municipality of Omealca, Xuchiles, Veracruz 1910. There is one record from Havana, Cuba growing on manure, but because the identification was questioned by Watling (Tulig et al 2017) and the inconsistency in vegetation type and substrate of this single record, it was not considered in the assessment.
This current distribution has a EOO of 720.068km2 and a AOO of 16.0km2 (based on 2km grid points). To assess its potential distribution, a directed search for the presence of the species in other localities was conducted, and none were found. Thus this species is likely rare and restricted to tropical montane cloud forests.
This species is only known from five localities, all in the central part of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Four of the five localities are in tropical montane cloud forests, but are in suburban areas without protection or conservation status. The fifth locality has no information regarding vegetation type. This species was collected six times since it was first described, with the most recent collection from 1983. All of the known sites are under pressure from suburban encroachment or transformation into agricultural use. Based on climate change models, tropical montane cloud forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007).
Population Trend: Deteriorating
This species is known only from tropical mountain cloud forests. It has been recorded from five sites, four of which are in suburban areas, with the other in a patch of protected forest surrounded by recreational areas. This species grows in forests which are under heavy pressure (Bubb et al. 2012). Bolbitius is a genus suspected to establish ectomycorrhizal symbioses (Tedersoo et al 2010), which if true, will be negatively impacted by a decline in the health of the forest.
This species is only known from tropical montane cloud forest (TMC) habitats, potentially in a symbiotic association with Quercus. TMC forests are estimated to decline 68% over the next 60 years (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012), and Quercus species that inhabit temperate and montane locations are estimated to decline by 30-45% over the next 30 years (Gómez-Mendoza and Arriaga 2007). Additionally, this species is rare, and its known localities are subject to pressure from suburban development.
While climate change is a major threat to the species, habitat loss and degradation is an ongoing threat. Reducing pressure due to land transformation—expansion of housing and conversion to farm and pasture land is needed. Needed conservation actions are associated with the conservation of the habitat. The tropical montane cloud forest (TMC) is a vegetation type under severe pressures, especially in Mexico. The TMC forest in the State of Chiapas had declined 50% over the past 25 years (Cayuelas et al. 2006), and even when the decline slows down, the damage to biodiversity remains considerable (Muñiz-Castro et al. 2006). Species in this genus are suspected to be ectomycorrhizal (Tedersoo et al. 2010) and the presence of a suitable forest is necessary for its viability.
Additional research is needed to confirm its distribution patterns. Much of its appropriate habitat has been surveyed, but additional work is needed. A modern revision of the genus is needed to understand phylogenetic relationships within te genus and to provide reference DNA sequences for matches to environmental samples. Additionally its ectomycorrhizal status needs to verified, currently it ecological role it is suspected only.
This species is not currently used.
Bubb, P., May, I., Miles, L., Sayer, J. 2004 Cloud Forest Agenda. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Online at: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources/publications/UNEP_WCMC_bio_series/20.htm
Cayuela, L., Benayas, J. M. R., & Echeverría, C. (2006). Clearance and fragmentation of tropical montane forests in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico (1975–2000). Forest Ecology and Management, 226(1-3), 208-218.
Murrill, W. A. (1912). The Agaricaceae of Tropical North America: V. Mycologia, 4(2), 72-83.
Muniz-Castro, M. A., Williams-Linera, G., & Benayas, J. M. R. (2006). Distance effect from cloud forest fragments on plant community structure in abandoned pastures in Veracruz, Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 22(4), 431-440.
Tedersoo, L., May, T. W., & Smith, M. E. (2010). Ectomycorrhizal lifestyle in fungi: global diversity, distribution, and evolution of phylogenetic lineages. Mycorrhiza, 20(4), 217-263.
Tulig M, Ramirez J, Watson K (2017). The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium (NY). The New York Botanical Garden. Occurrence Dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/6e8nje accessed via GBIF.org on 2018-02-20. https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1796435558