NOTE! H. fuligeneoviolaceus has been divided into another taxon roseoviolaceus (acidic pine forests) (Nitare et al 2021), extremly rare, only a few records in Sweden Check with Johan.
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Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceus is an ectomycorrhizal fungus with a wide distribution in Europe forming ectomycorrhiza with conifers in older forest on mostly dry calcareous soil. It is conspicuous and easily identified, much searched after and is an extremely rare species throughout Europe. It richest occurrences in Europe is in Sweden and Spain. It is very rare in Russia. The population in Europe population is small and fragmented and with typically only few mycelia at each locality. The European population is estimated to have declined, and continuing to decrease due felling of old forests.
In Europe, it is nationally red-listed due to decline of older calcareous forests and the total population assessed not to exceed 10 000 mature individuals.
Formally listed as a species of Sarcodon, but this species is now been classified as Hydnellum (Larsson et al 2019).
Correct name, Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceum (Kalchbr.) E.Larss., K.H.Larss. & Kõljalg.
There are presently no known seqences of H. fuligineoviolaceum outside northern Europe (2021). The name has been used in North Ameria, but sequenced specimens refer to different taxa. Specimens namned S. fuligineoviolaceum outside Europe probably refers to other species.
Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceus is distributed in Europe a with the largest subpopulations in Sweden and Spain.
Check if present in Russia!
Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceus is conspicuous and easily identified, much searched after and obviously an extremely rare species throughout Europe confined to a restricted habitat.The population in Europe population is widely spread, but small and fragmented and typically with a few mycelia at each locality only. It has its richest known occurrences in Sweden and Spain (Fraiture & Otto, 2015). It is known from approx. 40 localities in Sweden, 13 localities in Norway, 3 localities in Finland, 11 sites in Spain according to data from national redlists and species database maps.There is no verified sequences known outside Scandinavia-Balticum. CHECK SPAIN
The total population size in Europe is estimated to approx 150 localities, which is equalent to approx 3000 individuals.The European population is estimated to have declined, and continuing to decrease due felling of older calcareous coniferous forest. The decline is estimated to be in the range of 30-50% during the last 50 years. Nationally is red-listed in several European countries; Austria (CR), Estonia (CR), Finland (VU), Germany (2 approx corresponding to Norway (EN), Sweden (EN) and Switzerland (VU).
1 site in Slovakia??
The decline of the major habitat of the species, calcareous Picea forests in the evaluation period of 50 years is estimated to be in the magnitude of 30-40% We estimate the decline of the species to be in the same magnitude. It is assessed as Vulnerable based on the criteria A2c+3c+4c .The lenght period of evaluation is 50 years (= 3 generations according to the recommendations of Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011).
Population Trend: Decreasing
Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceum forms ectomycorrhiza exclusively with Pinaceae; e.g. mainly Pinus sylvestris, but also with Abies alba, A.cephalonica and possibly Picea abies. It mainly inhabits nutrient poor dry calcareous soils, often acidified in the soil surface, with thin litter layer. In the Mediterranean and temperate regions it mainly occurs in pine forest, in the Alps, Abies forest are suitable habitat and in the northern European countries is mainly in older open Pinus forest (often with presence of Picea). Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceum is one of the Hydnellum species most strictly associated to calcareus soil.
The main threat is forest management, i.e. clear felling. As all Sarcodon species it is sensitive to eutrophication due forest fertilisation or atmospheric nitrogen deposition.
Hydnellum versipelle and its habitats (calcareous Picea forests) have been declining e.g. due to areal loss (urbanization, including tourist resorts, road constructions, expansion of limestone quarries) as well as decreased habitat quality/ecological conditions due to modern forestry with clear-cuttings. In Norway, which has the largest populations of H. versipelle calcareous Picea forests are redlisted as VU.
Protection of known localities.
The species is not known to be used.
Dahlberg A, Croneborg H (eds), 2003. 33 Threatened Fungi. Complementary and Revised Information on Candidates for Listing in
Appendix 1 of the Bern Convention. EU DG. Council of Europe, Strasbourg. Available from: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/
Gärdenfors, U (ed), 2010. Red-listed Species in Sweden 2010. ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala.
Nitare, J. 2006: Åtgärdsprogram för bevarande av rödlistade fjälltaggsvampar. (Species action plan for red-listed Sarcodon. In Swedish with an English summary). Naturvårdsverket, rapport 5609. Stockholm. ISBN: 91-620-5609-3.
Nitare J. & Högberg N. 2012. Svenska arter av fjälltaggsvampar (Sarcodon) – en preliminär
rapport. (The genus Sarcodon in Sweden – a preliminary report. In Swedish, with an English summary). Svensk Mykologisk Tidskrift 33 (3): 2–49.
Dahlberg A & Mueller G. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 1-16
Fraiture & Otto P, 2015. Distribution….....