• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Sarcodon fuligineoviolaceus (Kalchbr.) Pat.

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Scientific name
Sarcodon fuligineoviolaceus
Author
(Kalchbr.) Pat.
Common names
Burnt Spiny Cap
lilaköttig taggsvamp
Brennender Stacheling
Lilla põdramokk
Rosafleischiger Nadelwald-Braunsporstacheling
jelenkovec sivofialový
Musteorakas
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Thelephorales
Family
Bankeraceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A2c+Ac3+A4c, + C
Proposed by
Ivona Kautmanova
Assessors
A. Martyn Ainsworth, Tor Erik Brandrud, Anders Dahlberg, Ivona Kautmanova, Tea von Bonsdorff
Editors
Michael Krikorev, Noah Siegel
Contributors
A. Martyn Ainsworth, Ivona Kautmanova, Ibai Olariaga Ibarguren, Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Comments etc.
Izabela L. Kalucka, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Maroš Peiger, Clemence Pillard, Irja Saar, Tatyana Svetasheva

Assessment Notes

Close to EN

Justification

Sarcodon fuligineoviolaceus has a wide distribution in Europe and form ectomycorrhiza with various conifers in older forest on mostly dry calcareous soil. Conspicuous and easily identified, much searched after and is an extremely rare species throughout Europe. It richest occurrences in Europe is in Sweden and Spain. It is very rare in Russia. The population in Europe population is small and fragmented and with only a few mycelia at each locality. The European population is estimated to have declined, and continuing to decrease due felling of old forests.

In Europe, it is nationally red-listed due to decline of older calcareous forests and the total population assessed not to exceed 10 000 mature individuals.


Taxonomic notes

Formally listed as a species of Sarcodon, but Sarcodon has now been placed in synonomy with Hydnellum (Larsson et al 2019).
Correct name, Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceum (Kalchbr.) E.Larss., K.H.Larss. & Kõljalg.

There are presently no known seqences of H. fuligineoviolaceum outside northern Europe (2021). he name has been used in North Ameria, but sequenced specimens refer to different taxa. Specimens namned S. fuligineoviolaceum outside Europe probably refers to other species.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

Sarcodon fuligineoviolaceus is distributed in Europe a with the largest subpopulations in Sweden and Spain.

Check if present in Russia


Population and Trends

Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceus is conspicuous and easily identified, much searched after and obviously an extremely rare species throughout Europe confined to a restricted habitat.The population in Europe population is widely spread but small and fragmented and typically with a few mycelia at each locality only. It has its richest occurrences in Europe in Sweden and Spain (Fraiture & Otto, 2015). It is known from approx. 40 localities in Sweden,6 localities in Norway and 3 localities in Finland according to data from national redlists and species database maps.There is no verified sequences known outside Scandinavia-Balticum.The estimated total population size in Europe is approx 150 localities, which is equalent to approx 3000 individuals.The European population is estimated to have declined, and continuing to decrease due felling of older calcareous coniferous forest. The decline is estimated to be in the range of 30-50% during the last 50 years. It is red-listed in several European countries Austria (CR), Estonia (CR), Finland VU, Norway EN, and Switzerland (VU). In Sweden having the largest known populations of H. fuligineoviolaceus, it is nationally red-listed as EN (2020). 

1 site n Slovakia

The decline of the major habitat of the species, calcareous Picea forests in the evaluation period of 50 years is estimated to be in the magnitude of 30-40% We estimate the decline of the species to be in the same magnitude. It is assessed as Vulnerable based on the criteria A2c+3c+4c .The lenght period of evaluation is 50 years (= 3 generations according to the recommendations of Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceum forms ectomycorrhiza exclusively with Pinaceae; e.g. mainly Pinus sylvestris, but also with Abies alba, A.cephalonica and possibly Picea abies. It mainly inhabits nutrient poor dry calcareous soils, often acidified in the soil surface, with thin litter layer. In the Mediterranean and temperate regions it mainly occurs in pine forest, in the Alps - Abies forest are suitable habitat and in the northern European countries is mainly in older open Pinus forest (often with presence of Picea or in mixed forests of Pinus and Picea. Hydnellum fuligineoviolaceum is one of the Sarcodon species most strictly associated to calcareus soil.

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Boreal ForestTemperate Forest

Threats

The main threat is forest management, i.e. clear felling.  As all Sarcodon species it is sensitive to eutrophication due forest fertilisation or atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

Hydnellum versipelle and its habitats (calcareous Picea forests) have been declining e.g. due to areal loss (urbanization, including tourist resorts, road constructions, expansion of limestone quarries) as well as decreased habitat quality/ecological conditions due to modern forestry with clear-cuttings. In Norway, which has the largest populations of H. versipelle calcareous Picea forests are redlisted as VU.

Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Protection of known localities.

Site/area protectionHarvest managementAwareness & communications

Research needed

Life history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

The species is not known to be used.


Bibliography

Dahlberg A, Croneborg H (eds), 2003. 33 Threatened Fungi. Complementary and Revised Information on Candidates for Listing in
Appendix 1 of the Bern Convention. EU DG. Council of Europe, Strasbourg. Available from: http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/
cultureheritage/conventions/bern/T-PVS/sc27_tpvs13_en.pdf

Gärdenfors, U (ed), 2010. Red-listed Species in Sweden 2010. ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala.

Nitare, J. 2006: Åtgärdsprogram för bevarande av rödlistade fjälltaggsvampar. (Species action plan for red-listed Sarcodon. In Swedish with an English summary).  Naturvårdsverket, rapport 5609. Stockholm. ISBN: 91-620-5609-3.

Nitare J. & Högberg N. 2012. Svenska arter av fjälltaggsvampar (Sarcodon) – en preliminär
rapport. (The genus Sarcodon in Sweden – a preliminary report. In Swedish, with an English summary). Svensk Mykologisk Tidskrift 33 (3): 2–49.

Dahlberg A & Mueller G. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 1-16

Fraiture & Otto P, 2015. Distribution….....


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted