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Bondarcevomyces taxi (Bondartsev) Parmasto

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Scientific name
Bondarcevomyces taxi
Author
(Bondartsev) Parmasto
Common names
Бондарцевомицес тисовый
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Tapinellaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-03-29
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
C2a(i)
Assessors
Kiyashko, A. & Svetasheva, T.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M. & Iršėnaitė, R.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/125435401/125435685

Justification

Bondarcevomyces taxi is a distinctive fungus forming large, easily recognizable, dark-orange, bracket-shaped fruitbodies with a strong odor. It is found growing on dead wood mostly of Taxus baccata and Chamaecyparis formosensis (EN) in montane old-growth forests scattered from the Caucasus through Siberia and Russian Far East to Japan and Taiwan. These types of habitat are declining in most regions of Eurasia and are considered to be threatened. At the present, the species is known only from 9 localities. Based on the area of potential suitable habitat, the maximum possible number of localities is estimated at <100. The number of mature individuals per site is estimated to be 2-5, so the total population is 200-500 and expected to be less than 3,500 mature individuals. Thus, the species is assessed as Vulnerable C2a(i) because of the small number of known localities in the world, assuming there are less than 1,000 mature individuals in each subpopulation, and with a declining of its habitats of Taxus baccata (in Russia) and Chamaecyparis formosensis.

Geographic range

Bondarcevomyces taxi is an Eurasian temperate polypore known predominantly in mountain regions of Caucasus, Siberia, Russian Far East, China, Japan, and Taiwan. In spite of wide distribution of its host Taxus baccata in Europe and distinctive fruitbodies of this species, it is not reported west of the Caucasus mountains.

Population and Trends

Bondarcevomyces taxi has been reported from five regions (six localities) of Russia: Western Caucasus (Krasnodar Krayi Adygeya Republic), Southern Siberia (Salair ridge, Novosibirsk Oblast) and Far East (Khabarovsk Krai and Primorsky Krai) (Parmasto and Parmasto 1999). The other three localities were registered in China from Jilin Prov. (Changbai Co., Changbai Forest Reserve), in Taiwan from Ilan Prov., in Japan - Yuho, Toyama, Toyama Pref. (Hosoya 2018).

In Caucasus this species was found in rare plant communities with Taxus baccata (Hageneder 2007). The type locality of the species (Yew and Box-Tree Grove in Khosta river canyon) is under threat because of a widespread disease of the co-occurring Buxus colchica (Matshiakh 2016) coupled with recreation pressure. Besides there is evidence that Taxus baccata is highly likely to be entirely affected by climate change (Thomas and Garcia-Marti 2015). Another locality is situated in the unprotected and vulnerable area of Adygea Republic. The decline of this habitat is predicted to continue over the next 50 years.

Chamaecyparis formoensis, another host of B. taxi in China is also under threat of habitat loss, and it is estimated as EN (Zhang and Christian 2013). Most of the other B. taxi reports were from protected areas (excl. Salair, Siberia) on Larix gmelinii, Larix sp. and Pinus koraiensis.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

It is a wood-inhabiting fungus specialized in causing brown heart rot (Parmasto and Parmasto 1999) mostly of Taxus baccata and Chamaecyparis formoensis, sometimes of other coniferous trees. Bondarcevomyces taxi was registered for the first time on a stump of Taxus baccata in the Black Sea region of Caucasus and subsequently as single finds on Larix gmelinii and Pinus koraiensis in Siberia and Russian Far East. Then it was found on Chamaecyparis formosensis in Taiwan. The restricted set of colonized trees may be evidence of specialization to specific woody substrate of old age. The known collections have been found mainly in native little disturbed montane old-growth forests, suggesting that the species prefers this habitat. Usually only one fruitbody has been found per tree and site.

Despite a wide distribution of Taxus baccata in Europe, there are no reports of B. taxi from that habitat. This species has a distinctive and quite big and bright fruitbody with a strong smell, so it is difficult to overlook it. Thus, the presence of the tree substrate is not driving the distribution of this species and B. taxi has specific and narrow ecological preferences leading to its limited distribution and global rareness.

Threats

The main threat for this species is loss and decline of the required rare montane old growth forest habitat due to logging, changing environment (including climate change, cf. Thomas and Garcia-Marti 015), disease of co-occurring taxa, and increase in human activity (recreation, building, cutting down of Taxus tree for souvenirs, etc.).

Conservation Actions

Conservation needed:
Localities of Bondarcevomyces taxi should be protected and appropriately managed.

Research needed:
Detailed information about biology, ecology and distribution of this very rare species is needed. Data on genetics of individual and population size would be very useful.

Use and Trade

There is no information on practical use of this species.

Source and Citation

Kiyashko, A. & Svetasheva, T. 2019. Bondarcevomyces taxi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T125435401A125435685. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T125435401A125435685.en .Downloaded on 30 January 2021

Country occurrence