• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Cinereomyces dilutabilis (Log.-Leite & J.E. Wright) Miettinen

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Scientific name
Cinereomyces dilutabilis
(Log.-Leite & J.E. Wright) Miettinen
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
MIND.Funga Initiative
Comments etc.
MIND.Funga Initiative

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Cinereomyces dilutabilis (Loguercio-Leite & J. E. Wright) Miettinen, 2012 (≡ Diplomitoporus dilutabilis, Log.-Leite & J.E.Wright, 1998).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Cinereomyces dilutabilis is a rare wood-decaying resupinate polypore. It occurs in the Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil and in Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica, both threatened vegetational domains.
The species is assessed as Near Threatened (NT) under criterion A3c + C1.

Geographic range

Cinereomyces dilutabilis is only known from six sites, most of them in Brazil, except for one in Costa Rica. The brazilian specimens were collected in the Atlantic Forest domain of Southern and Southeastern Brazil, in the states of São Paulo (2 collections), Santa Catarina (5 collections) and Rio Grande do Sul (5 collections). It is expected that the species occurs throughout the Atlantic Forest fragments of Brazil. There are olnly two collections from Costa Rica, Guanacaste province, from the Tropical Dry Forest domain. It is also expected that the species occurs in other similar areas in Central America.

Population and Trends

Currently, C. dilutabilis is known from only 6 sites and 13 collections. Most of records are from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, in São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states. It is expected that the species occurs throughout the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, which is now mainly composed by fragments and secondary forests, with only 28% of its original area remaining (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018). Also, there are only two collections from Costa Rica, Guanacaste province, in the Tropical Dry Forest domain. This forests extends from Costa Rica to Chiapas region in Mexico,so, it is expected to be found in other Central American areas with similar habitat. The Tropical Dry Forest domain has suffered a massive loss of area, remaining with less than 2% of its original area intact in the Pacific side (Janzen 1988). Specifically, in Costa Rica, only 24% of the original forest cover is left (Portillo-Quintero and Sánchez-Azofeifa 2010). The collections of Costa Rica and Southern Brazil are 5600 kilometers apart, characterizing two known subpopulations for the species.
In areas where the Funga has been intensively surveyed, such as parts of the Atlantic Forest domain in Brazil, the species was scarcely found, which indicates that the species is likely rare. There are a total of 2000 estimated sites, with 5-10 mature individuals each. Total population is estimated at 15.000 to 20.000 mature individuals. It is possible that these numbers are overestimated, as the species may not find conditions to occur in much of its potential range, given the poor current state of the forests where it could possibly be found.
With the two subpopulations occuring in threatened domains (Myers 2000), the largest subpopulation occurring in the Atlantic Forest domain, that has just 28% of its original area remaining, mostly composed by secondary forests (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018), and an ongoing decline predicted to continue in the near future, the species has a projected decline in population size of at least 10% over the next 20 years, covering three generations of the species.
The species is assessed as Near Threatened (NT) under criterion A3c + C1.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Cinereomyces dilutabilis is a wood-decaying fungus currently found in Brazil, in the Atlantic Forest domain and in Costa Rica, in the Tropical Dry Forest domain. The species is expected to be widespread throughout these domains.

Subtropical/Tropical Dry ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest


Cinereomyces dilutabilis is found in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, regarded as a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities due to its high diversity, endemism rates and habitat loss (Myers et al. 2000). This phytogeographical domain is estimated to have only 28% of its vegetation remaining, with the remnants being fragmented and composed mostly by secondary forests (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018). According to Pinto et al. (2006), the Atlantic Forest is found in this situation due to predatory exploration of the resources and human actions, like territorial occupation. About 60% of the Brazilian population lives in the Atlantic Forest, mainly in coastal areas, where the country’s largest cities are located (Rezende et al. 2018). Other threats to the Atlantic Forest include increase in fire frequency and intensity, introduction of exotic and invasive species and the connection between these factors (Brooks & Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006). Also, reduction and ‘savannization’ of Atlantic Forest is expected due to climate change in the next decades (Salazar et al. 2007). The Tropical Dry Forest domain in Central America is even more endangered, remaining with only 2% of its original area intact in the Pacific side (Janzen 1988). According to Portillo-Quintero et al. (2010), the Tropical Dry Forest area in North and Central America was 719,338 km², with only 203,884 km² remaining today, from which just 624 km² (0,3%) are under protection, having undergone a loss of 72% of the potential extent. Specifically, in Costa Rica only 24% of original area remains (Portillo-Quintero & Sánchez-Azofeifa 2010). Most of the Tropical Dry Forest domain is severely fragmented, and the threats are multiple and complex, where it comprises the economy, policies, land owners, historical losses, and other factors within Central American countries (Janzen 1988).

Housing & urban areasAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingIncrease in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

The main actions to prevent the decline of the species are the protection of its habitat by the implementation of Protected Areas and enforcement of public policies to recover secondary forests.

Site/area protectionHabitat & natural process restorationNational level

Research needed

More surveys are needed to better understand the species ecology. Also, further analyses are needed to confirm the conspeficity of the brazilian and central-american subpopulations. Currently, there are no available DNA sequences of this species, and its phylogenetic and taxonomic status need to be better studied.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known.


Brooks T, Balmford A (1996) Atlantic forest extinctions. Nature 380: 115.
Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica (2018). Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais da Mata Atlântica: Período 2017-2018. Arcplan. 35 p.
Calvo-Alvarado, J., McLennan, B., Sánchez-Azofeifa, A., & Garvin, T. (2009). Deforestation and forest restoration in Guanacaste, Costa Rica: Putting conservation policies in context. Forest Ecology and Management, 258(6), 931–940. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2008.10.035
Gillespie, T.W., Grijalva, A. & Farris, C.N. Diversity, composition, and structure of tropical dry forests in Central America. Plant Ecology 147, 37–47 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009848525399
Janzen, D.H., 1988. Tropical dry forests. The most endangered major tropical ecosystem. In: Wilson, E.O. (Ed.), Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, pp. 130–137.
Loguercio-Leite C, Wright JE. 1998. Diplomitoporus dilutabilis, a new species of Polyporaceae
(Aphyllophorales) from Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. Mycotaxon 68: 47–51.

Miettinen, Otto. (2012). Diplomitoporus dilutabilis belongs to Cinereomyces (Polyporales, Basidiomycota). Mycotaxon -Ithaca Ny-. 121. 345-348. 10.5248/121.345.
Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GA, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772): 853-858.
Pinto LP, Bede LC, Paese A, Fonseca M, Paglia AP, Lamas I (2006) Mata Atlântica brasileira: Os desafios para a conservação da biodiversidade de um hotspot mundial. In: Rocha CFD, Bergallo HG, Sluys MV, Alves MAS. Biologia da conservação: Essências (ed. 1). Rima Editora. 91-118.
Portillo-Quintero, C. A., & Sánchez-Azofeifa, G. A. (2010). Extent and conservation of tropical dry forests in the Americas. Biological Conservation, 143(1), 144–155. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.09.020
Portillo-Quintero, C., & Smith, V. (2018). Emerging trends of tropical dry forests loss in North & Central America during 2001–2013: The role of contextual and underlying drivers. Applied Geography, 94, 58–70. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.03.011
Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, Joly CA, Metzger JP, Strassburg BBN, Tabarelli M, Fonseca GA, Mittermeier RA (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 16(4): 208-214.
Salazar LF, Nobre CA, Oyama MD (2007) Climate change consequences on the biome distribution in tropical South America. Geophysical Research Letters 34(9).
Sanchez-Azofeifa, G.A. & Harriss, Robert & Skole, David. (2001). Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Quantitative Analysis Using Remote Sensing Imagery1. Biotropica. 33. 378 - 384. 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2001.tb00192.x.
Stan, K., & Sanchez-Azofeifa, A. (2018). Deforestation and secondary growth in Costa Rica along the path of development. Regional Environmental Change. doi:10.1007/s10113-018-1432-5
Tabarelli M, Aguiar A, Grillo A, Santos A (2006) Fragmentação e Perda de Habitats na Mata Atlântica ao Norte do Rio São Francisco. In: Siqueira-Filho, JA, Leme, EMC. Fragmentos de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste: Biodiversidade, Conservação e suas Bromélias. Andrea Jacobsson Estúdio Editorial. 80-99.
Tabarelli, M., Aguiar, A. V., Ribeiro, M. C., Metzger, J. P., & Peres, C. A. (2010) Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation, 143(10), 2328–2340. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.02.005

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted