- Scientific name
- Wrightoporia porilacerata
- Log.-Leite, A.L. Gerber & Ryvarden
- Common names
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- IUCN Red List Criteria
- Robledo, G., Drechsler-Santos, E.R., Kossmann, T., Bittencourt, F., Rezende, D. & da Cunha, K.M.
- Mueller, G.M.
is a lignicolous fungus, endemic to the southern Atlantic Forest of Brazil. It has been recorded only three times, from two sites in Santa Catarina State and one in Paraná state, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain (Fiaschi and Pirani 2009). The species was proposed in 1998, based on a 1996 collection from Unidade de Conservação Ambiental Desterro (UCAD) in Santa Catarina Island (Loguercio-Leite et al
. 1998). Almost 20 years later the species was recollected, also in Santa Catarina, in the National Park São Joaquim, a region dominated by Araucaria
forest and characterized by a typical montane subtropical vegetation. As a result of its rare occurrence and fragmented disturbed habitat, a small population size is estimated. Total population size is calculated at no more than 5,000 mature individuals, distributed across 250-500 sites. The population is considered to be declining, as the Atlantic Forest is threatened by intensive degradation and is still prone to anthropogenic threats, climate change, “secondarization” and “savannization” (Tabarelli et al.
2010, Scarano and Ceotto 2015), the species is classified as Vulnerable.
is known from three sites in southern Brazil, two in the Santa Catarina state and one in Paraná state, all in the Atlantic Forest. Two of these records are from the coastal Atlantic Forest (Dense Ombrophilous Forest) and one is from the montane cloud forests/mixed ombrophilous forest.
The species is estimated to be endemic to the southern Atlantic Forest, from the state of São Paulo in the north to Rio Grande do Sul in the south.
Population and Trends
The species is known only from 3 sites located in Santa Catarina and Paraná States in southern Brazil. The species was described based on a specimen collected in 1996 at UCAD/UFSC, a research area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina located in Santa Catarina Island (Loguercio-Leite et al. 1998). The species was recollected 20 years later in National Park São Joaquim, also in the Santa Catarina State. The other known collection is from Paraná State, made in 1993 (Chen and Yu 2012). Both sites in Santa Catarina are conservation units extensively sampled, with frequent mycological surveys. Even so, the species has not been found again in UCAD after more than 20 years following its description, and has been recorded only once in São Joaquim National Park in over 8 years of surveying. The Atlantic Forest is the most studied domain in Brazil, with many traditional and active groups and specialists in fungal taxonomy extensively surveying throughout the region. Thus the species is likely extremely rare.
Considering its rarity, the few known collections and the restricted number of known sites where the species was found, it is estimated that there no more than 250-500 sites of occurrence, each supporting up to 10 mature individuals. Total population is estimated at 2,500-5,000 mature individuals in one subpopulation. This is likely to be in decline as a result of past and ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation.
Population Trend: decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
is a saprobic wood-decomposer, causing a white-rot. It is likely restricted to the southern Atlantic Forest, both in ombrophilous dense forest (coastal Atlantic Forest) and ombrophilous mixed forest (Araucaria
forest), as well as in montane cloud forest.
The Atlantic Forest is one of the world’s hotspots, but has lost most of its original cover. There is only 28% left of its original area (Rezende et al.
2018), and the Atlantic Forest remains prone to anthropogenic threats. It is represented by forest fragments, being affected by secondary effects of previous deforestation, such as climate change, “secondarization” and “savannization” (Tabarelli et al.
2010, Scarano and Ceotto 2015). Also, there are problems related to illegal activities in conservation areas and their vicinity, including fire.
The main action to prevent the decline of the species is the preservation of the known and potential sites by effectively managing existing, and establishing new, conservation areas. Surveys are needed in unexplored areas to better understand the species' distribution and ecology, providing more information for conservation plans. The areas of south Brazil with appropriate vegetation deserve special attention.
Use and Trade
It is unknown whether this species is utilised or not.
Source and Citation
Robledo, G., Drechsler-Santos, E.R., Kossmann, T., Bittencourt, F., Rezende, D. & da Cunha, K.M. 2020. Wrightoporia porilacerata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T187000458A187004580. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T187000458A187004580.en
.Accessed on 31 January 2022