• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Wrightoporia porilacerata Log.-Leite, A.L. Gerber & Ryvarden

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Scientific name
Wrightoporia porilacerata
Author
Log.-Leite, A.L. Gerber & Ryvarden
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Russulales
Family
Bondarzewiaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C2a(ii)
Proposed by
MIND.Funga Initiative
Assessors
Felipe Bittencourt, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Diogo Rezende, Gerardo Robledo
Comments etc.
MIND.Funga Initiative, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Wrightoporia porilacerata is a lignicolous fungus, endemic to the Southern Atlantic Forest of Brazil, where it has been recorded only three times, with two sites in Santa Catarina State and another in Paraná state, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain (Fiaschi & Pirani 2009). The species was proposed in 1998, based on a collection of 1996 from Unidade de Conservação Ambiental Desterro (UCAD) in Santa Catarina Island (Loguercio-Leite et al. 1998). Almost 20 years later the species was recollected, also in Santa Catarina, in the National Park of São Joaquim, a region dominated by Araucaria forest and characterized by a typical montane subtropical vegetation. As a result of its rare occurrence, a small population size is estimated. Total population is calculated at no more than 5,000 mature individuals, distributed in 250-500 sites. The population is considered to be declining, as the Atlantic Forest is threatened by intensive degradation and still prone to anthropogenic threats, climate change, “secondarization” and “savannization” (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Scarano & Ceotto 2015), the species is classified as Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

Wrightoporia porilacerata Loguercio-Leite, Gerber & Ryvarden was described in 1998 by Loguercio-Leite et al. (1998).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Wrightoporia porilacerata is a beautiful and rare polypore species, collected only three times. The species is only know from two sites in Santa Catarina state and one in Paraná state, where a severe devastation of Atlantic Forest has occurred over the past centuries. These rare occurrences associated to past and undergoing threats to Atlantic Forest biodiversity justify the consideration of this species under IUCN criteria.


Geographic range

Wrightoporia porilacerata is known from three sites in southern Brazil, two in the Santa Catarina state and one in Paraná state, all in the Atlantic Forest. Two of these records are from the coastal Atlantic Forest (Dense Ombrophilous Forest) and one is from the Montane Cloud Forests/Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.

The species is estimated to be endemic to the southern region of the Atlantic Forest, to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn (ca. 23º S lat.), from the state of São Paulo, to the north, to Rio Grande do Sul, to the south.


Population and Trends

The species in known from 3 sites, all of them in Southern Brazil, in Santa Catarina and Paraná States. The species was described based on a specimen collected in 1996 at UCAD/UFSC, located in Santa Catarina Island (Loguercio-Leite et al. 1998), a research area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. The species was recollected recently, 20 years later, in the National Park of São Joaquim, also in the Santa Catarina State. Additionally, there is another collection, from Paraná State, made in 1993 (Chen & Yu 2012). Both sites from where the species is known in Santa Catarina are conservation units extensively sampled, with frequent mycological surveys. Still, the species has never again been found in UCAD in more than 20 years following its description, and has been recorded only once in São Joaquim National Park in over 8 years of surveying. Additionally, the Atlantic Forest is the most studied domain in Brazil, with many traditional and active groups and specialists in fungal taxonomy extensively surveying several regions throughout the region. This is indicative that the species is likely extremely rare.

Thus, considering its rarity, the few known collections and the restricted known sites where the species was found, it is estimated that there no more than 250-500 sites of occurrence, each supporting up to 10 mature individuals. Total population is estimated at 2,500-5,000 mature individuals in one subpopulation. This is likely to be in decline as a result of past and ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Wrightoporia porilacerata is saprobic, wood-decomposer, causing a white-rot. Likely restricted to the southern parts of the Atlantic Forest, both in Ombrophilous dense forest (coastal Atlantic Forest) and Ombrophilous mixed forest (Araucaria Forest), as well as in the Montane Cloud Forests.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The Atlantic Forest is one of the world’s hotspots, and has lost most of its original cover. There is only 28% left of its original area (Rezende 2018), and the Atlantic Forest remains prone to anthropogenic threats and is represented by forest fragments, being affected by secondary effects of previous deforestation, such as climate change, “secondarization” and “savannization” (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Scarano & Ceotto 2015). Also, there are problems related to illegal activities in conservation areas and their vicinity, such as fire.

Agro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingIncrease in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

The main action to prevent the decline of the species is preservation of the known and any additional sites by implementing conservation areas. Also, the maintenance and continuity of the protection within these areas would be necessary.

Site/area protectionAwareness & communicationsPolicies and regulations

Research needed

Surveys are needed in unexplored areas in order to better understand the species’ distribution and ecology, providing more information for conservation plans. The areas of south Brazil with appropriate vegetation deserve special attention.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

Unknown.


Bibliography

Brazil (2018) Medida Provisória n° 852, de 2018 (Gestão de imóveis da União) - Medidas Provisórias. Congresso Nacional. Available at https://www.congressonacional.leg.br/materias/medidas-provisorias/-/mpv/134252

Fiaschi, P.; Pirani, J.R. 2009. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 47: 477–496.
Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Disponível em:

<

http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/ >. Acesso em: 24 mar. 2020

Loguercio-Leite, C.; Gerber, A. L.; Ryvarden, L. 1998. Wrightoporia porilacerata, a new species of pore fungi from southern Brazil. Mycotaxon 67:251-255.
Loguercio-Leite, C.; Campos-Santana, M.; Gerlach, A.; Gutjahr, M.; Trierveiler-Pereira, L.; Drechsler-santos, E. R.; Baltazar, J. M. 2009. Resume of macromycetes from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Insula 38: 1-14.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Fonseca, G. A.; Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772):853.
Rezende, C.L., Scarano, F. R., Assad, E. D., Joly, C. A., Metzger, J. P., Strassburg, B. B. N.; Tabarelli, M., Fonseca, G. A., Mittermeier, R. A. (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives In Ecology And Conservation 16(4): 208-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.002.
Rivers, M. C.; Bachman, S. P.; Meagher, T. R.; Lughanda, E. N.; Brummitt, N. A. 2010. Subpopulations, locations and fragmentation: applying IUCN red list criteria to herbarium specimen data. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(7): 2071-2085.
Scarano, F. B.; Ceotto, P. 2015. Brazilian Atlantic forest: impact, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:2319–2331.
Tabarelli, M.; Aguiar, A. V.; Ribeiro, M. C.; Metzger, J. P.; & Peres, C. A. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation, 143(10), 2328–2340. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.02.005


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted