Omit the description. ECM fungi assessed over 50 years, if the habitat is known, the population size and change over 50 years can be inferrred. This is the usual way to infer trends for ECM fungi.
This species has few records but a very wide distribution (> 2,000,000 km2). There are many possible locations where this species might occur but there are limited survey efforts (for example, eastern coast of Queensland, north of Fraser Island/Noosa region and south of Cairns - over 1000 km of land). While there are >10,000 records of Amanita sp. on Australian Living Atlas, most (~90%) of these records are from the southern half of the continent (latitude < -27 degrees) and 3425 records of Amanita are not identified to species. Therefore, an accurate distribution of this species has not been fully realised and there is insufficient evidence to reliably say it is rare. That being said, the threats to this species and other ectomycorrhizal fungi by substantial habitat clearing and habitat degradation justify further monitoring of rare fungal taxa.
There are two specimens in BRI from North Queensland that are labelled A. roseophylla (Jenkins 1985). However, after one of us (F. Guard) examined these specimens, they were found to fit Wood’s (1997) description of A. roseolamellata. Amanita roseophylla is an American species restricted to Alabama and is in Sect. Amanita (Jenkins 1985). On the other hand, Am. roseolamellata fits into Sect. Caesarae (Wood 1997) which is supported with molecular data (Sánchez-Ramírez et al. 2015).
This potentially extends the distribution of this species by >1500 km, which is likely to be a separate sub-population (see Geographic Distribution).
Below is the differences between A. roseophylla (Jenkins) and A. roseolamellata (Wood) in morphology and putative hosts.
Cap size: 20-40mm diam. (A. roseophylla); 50-100mm diam. (A. roseolamellata)
Velar remains: Sparse, thin, disappear with age (A. roseophylla); If present, thick off-white patches (A. roseolamellata)
Stipe: 50 x 7-8mm, annulus disappearing with age, base swollen, sub-abrupt, egg shaped, volva often absent, if present (A. roseophylla); 50-100mm, persistent annulus, base not swollen, volva large white, saccate (A. roseolamellata)
Gills: floccose, pink (A. roseophylla); pink (A. roseolamellata)
Spores: Ellipsoid, inamyloid, 10.2-11.7 x 7-7.8 um (A. roseophylla); Ellipsoid to elongate, inamyloid 10-12.6 x 6.3-8 um (A. roseolamellata)
Associated species: Pinus taeda, Loblolly pine (USA) (A. roseophylla); Allocasuarina littoralis, Eucalyptus racemosa etc (A. roseolamellata)
This species is a readily recognisable Amanita with few collections. The habitat of this species is highly fragmented and in decline. Many of these areas are small patches of forest surrounded by urban or agricultural land, with recent (within the last few decades) severe decline in forest extent and increasing pressure for urban development.
This species was written up by Pat Leonard, Fran Guard and Susan Nuske as part of a conservation initiative by the Queensland Mycological Society and Nigel Fechner. This species was flagged as a potentially threatened because it has few collections in Queensland and its habitat is in urban, built-up areas. As the investigation continued, it was found that this species has a wide distribution in Australia. Therefore, it is recommended by S. Nuske to be listed as Least Concern with continued monitoring in existing habitats and other likely habitats.
Australia in states/territories Queensland, New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory (***plus another, yet to be confirmed record from northern Kimberley Theda Station, northern Western Australia - Matt Barrett***)
Extent of Occurrence (EOO): 2,239,754 km2
Area of Occupancy (AOO): 68 km2
Locations were defined as recorded sites that are within a continuous forest or forest that is close in proximity that still stands today where a single event could affect all individuals within a population (e.g. fire or cyclone). Subpopulations were defined as locations that are < 500km from each other (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011).
Subpopulation 1 New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory
EOO: 67,406 km2
AOO: 36 km2
Location 1: Canberra Botanic Gardens (ACT) where it was found twice (1995 & 2003, H. Lepp).
Location 2: Genaren Hill Sanctuary in Parkes Shire (NSW) (2000, J.M. Trappe).
Location 3: Blue Mountains NP (2000, N.A. Sawyer, 33°43´S, 150°26´E); Little Hartley, Lithgow, Blue Mountains (2011, 2012 L. Albertella; sequenced by Tulloss et al. Accession numbers: KP866166, KP866165, KP866164); Wentworth Falls (1980’s A.M. Young within (Wood 1997)); Mt Wilson (1980’s A.M. Young within (Wood 1997)); Wyong, Watagan State Forest (1980’s A.M. Young et al. within (Wood 1997)).
Location 4: Lane Cove National Park either 1999 or 2000, 33°47´S, 151°08´E (Sawyer et al. 2003a, 2003b).
Location 5: Dungog, Chichester State Forest 1980’s (A.M. Young et al. within (Wood 1997)).
Subpopulation 2 South East Queensland and Northern New South Wales
EOO: 12,068 km2
AOO: 20 km2
Location 6: Lake Cooroibah Section, Great Sandy NP (3/3/12 and 23/4/16, F. Guard) and Coolum Section Noosa NP (2013, P. Leonard).
Location 7: Maroochy Bushland Botanic Gardens (12/3/16, F. Guard).
Location 8: Blackbutt, Benarkin State Forest (1980’s A.M. Young within Wood 1997).
Location 9: Mullumbimby, Nullum State Forest (NSW, 1980’s J.J. Bruhl within Wood 1997).
Subpopulation 3 North Queensland
AOO: 8 km2
Location 10: Mt Baldy, Atherton, north Qld (Booth, R., Young, A.M. 2001, mislabelled Amanita roseophylla; see above discussion).
Location 11: Mt Zero*, near Paluma (ITS2 environmental sequence data, S. J. Nuske unpublished data (Nuske et al. 2018, report to WWF-Australia), 2014, 19° 2’14.17"S, 146° 6’38.20"E, OTU matching Accession number KP866164, e-value: 6.32E-133, percent identity match: 97%, percent coverage match: 100%, sequence length: 341. OTU occurred in 3/3 subsamples from one plot in the late dry season (November 2014) at 2-3.4% relative abundance of all sequences per sample).
*sites detected by DNA sequencing only may not represent viable populations with mature individuals.
Subpopulation 4: Northern Terriotry
Location 12: Litchfield National Park, NT (Barrett, M.D.; Bonito, G.M.; Lebel, T., 2014). MEL2382706A
This species was originally described from 7 collections from 4 locations made in the 1980s (Wood 1997). It is a readily recognisable species and has been recorded at 8 new locations since then, with 4 new locations being in the last 5 years. As several new locations have been found, this suggests we are far from knowing the true distribution of this species, let alone any population trends.
However, the habitat in which it has been found has declined dramatically in extent since European settlement, mainly due to coastal and urban development and agriculture. Clearing of potential host trees in the Douglas-Daly region where the Northern Territory specimen was found, increased dramatically in the last two decades with over 35 000 ha cleared by the end of 2009, and 18% of the area cleared by 2011 (Lawes et al. 2015). Northern New South Wales and South-East Queensland have experienced the highest rates of clearing of Australia (Bradshaw 2012). The cleared forest in Queensland is equivalent to ~ 50% of the state’s total land surface and most of this clearing has happened in the last 50 years and in the South-East. In the wet tropics of North Queensland, where this fungus is found, ~52% is cleared for pasture. In Northern New South Wales, where subpopulation 1 is found, between 50-67% of Eucalypt forests have been cleared. Therefore, many locations where this species is found have degraded or have been highly fragmented which has implied population losses for this species.
Below is data on the number of locations recorded per decade:
decade list of known locations (numbers correspond to locations above) Cumulative known locations new locations locations per decade
1981-1990 3, 5, 8, 9 4 0 4
1991-2000 1, 2, 3, 4 7 3 4
2001-2010 1, 10 8 1 2
2011-2016 3, 6, 7, 11*,12 12 4 5
Population Trend: Uncertain
This species is ectomycorrhizal found in sclerophyll forest and wallum woodland. There are a number of potential ECM hosts in the various locations where the species is found, including Eucalyptus, Allocasuarina, Acacia and Melaleuca species.
There is no published information on the longevity of this species in natural conditions or other described species of this Section (Am. pallidofumosa, Am. egregia, Am. egreginus). This species is readily culturable (Sawyer et al. 2003a, 2003b).
The habitat in which this species is found has declined rapidly as it is much in demand for urban development and for agricultural production (particularly the locations within South East Queensland, Subpopulation 2). The sites in which these collections have been made are almost all managed by burning and have varying degrees of pollution, which could pose a threat for this species.
Continued monitoring of known populations. Surveys of areas with potential populations. Public awareness of this species for monitoring.
Basic research on the mycorrhizal hosts, habitat preference and other ‘suitable’ habitat between the three sub-populations that haven’t been sampled extensively. Genetic research is needed to verify these populations are disparate.
We lack other basic ecological knowledge for this species. For instance, research on tolerance to fire, grazing by farm animals and invasive of weeds are needed to make more accurate conservation management plans.
Bradshaw, C. J. A. 2012. Little left to lose: Deforestation and forest degradation in Australia since European colonization. Journal of Plant Ecology 5:109–120.
Dahlberg, A., and G. M. Mueller. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4:147–162.
Jenkins, D. T. 1985. A new species of Amanita VII. Mycotaxon 24:283–286.
Lawes, M. J., R. Greiner, I. A. Leiper, R. Ninnis, D. Pearson, and G. Boggs. 2015. The effects of a moratorium on land-clearing in the Douglas-Daly region, Northern Territory, Australia. Rangeland Journal 37:399–408.
Nuske, S. J., Anslan, S., Tedersoo, L., Krockenberger, A., Congdon, B., Abell, S. E. 2018. Final MERIT Report: Monitoring trial burning in marginal habitat at AWC property: fire and thinning and the effect on soil fungi. Report to WWF-Australia.
Sánchez-Ramírez, S., R. E. Tulloss, M. Amalfi, and J.-M. Moncalvo. 2015. Palaeotropical origins, boreotropical distribution and increased rates of diversification in a clade of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms (Amanita section Caesareae). Journal of Biogeography 42:351–363.
Sawyer, N. A., S. M. Chambers, and J. W. G. Cairney. 2003a. Utilisation of inorganic and organic phosphorus sources by isolates of Amanita muscaria and Amanita species native to temperate eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 51:151–158.
Sawyer, N. A., S. M. Chambers, and J. W. G. Cairney. 2003b. Utilisation of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources by Amanita species native to temperate eastern Australia. Mycological research 107:413–420.
Wood, A. E. 1997. Studies in the Genus Amanita (Agaricales) in Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 10:723–854.