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Entoloma porphyrophaeum (Fr.) P. Karst.

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Scientific name
Entoloma porphyrophaeum
Author
(Fr.) P. Karst.
Common names
Lilac Pinkgill
grimiznosmeđa rudoliska
Porfyrbrun rødblad
pruun punalehik
kyyhkyrusokas
Porphyrbrauner Rötling
Porfiersatijnzwam
lillabrun rødspore
dzwonkówka porfirowobrązowa
porfirasta rdečelistka
porfyrrödling
Entolome porphyre
závojenka šedohnědá
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Entolomataceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-03-26
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
A2c+3c+4c
Assessors
Jordal, J.
Reviewers
Ainsworth, A.M. & Mešić, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/147285942/147875649

Justification

Entoloma porphyrophaeum is a species of seminatural grasslands in Europe, up to subalpine areas. The habitats are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining and pollution (airborne nitrogen deposition). Over the distribution range we assume a total habitat loss of 30-50% over the last 50 years (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher, strengthening the assumption of nearly 50% population decline. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. GBIF lists more than 1300 occurrences. The species is assumed to have a population of more than 20,000 mature individuals. At a global scale (i.e. Europe) the population decline is assumed to be on average 30-50% in 50 years (past, present and future). The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).

Taxonomic notes

Entoloma porphyrophaeum Bres. is described from Sweden but the type does not exist (Noordeloos 1992). The taxonomic status of GBIF occurrences in N America is doubtful and not included here. There is hardly any proof of European Entoloma species occurring in N America (M. Noordeloos pers. comm.).

Geographic range

The species is with certainty only known from Europe, where it occurs in many countries from the lowlands up to subalpine areas (see also GBIF 2019), especially in the northwestern part (UK and Scandinavia). The eastern limit is uncertain due to lack of data.

Population and Trends

According to GBIF (2019) there are >1300 occurrences from Europe. Based on available information on trends in seminatural grasslands, Griffith et al. (2013) estimated a habitat loss of 90% over the last 75 years for the CHEG-fungi (grassland fungi of Clavariaceae, Hygrocybe s.l., Entoloma and Geoglossaceae) as a whole in Western Europe. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% over 13 years (1990-2003). Also other sources point to a habitat loss in seminatural grasslands of roughly 1% per year in Europe over a longer time, although the data quality is not always very good. Over the whole distribution range we assume a total habitat loss and population decline of 30-50% over the last 50 years. As the habitat quality is also declining, population decline could be higher. Much of European grasslands have bad habitat quality. This trend is ongoing and expected to continue in the future.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Entoloma porphyrophaeum grows in mycologically rich but nutrient-poor semi-natural grasslands. Semi-natural grasslands are rapidly disappearing due to changes in land use (see Threats). It is found from sea level up to subalpine (and sometimes also alpine) areas in Scandinavia and in the Alps. The nutrient strategy is unknown. In Norway, most localities of the species are in seminatural grasslands (N=100; 91% in seminatural grasslands, and 9% in forests; Jordal et al. 2016), and similar patterns are found in other countries. The fruit bodies are short-lived (weeks), but the mycelium is suspected to be long-lived; >50-100 years.

Threats

Habitat destruction and abandonment are the main threats to seminatural grasslands. The most important process is probably overgrowing due to ceased grazing/mowing of old seminatural grasslands as part of intensification of agriculture. Further modern cultivation methods like use of fertilizers, pesticides and ploughing. Also in some places changed land use with the construction of roads, industrial areas, settlements etc. Decline is expected to continue, as at least the areas of seminatural grasslands are of little economic importance in modern agriculture. Most CHEG grasslands (see Population) are among types assessed as VU, EN or CR in the EU Red List of habitats (Janssen et al. 2016).

Conservation Actions

The habitats should be protected against destruction due to intensification of agriculture or development plans. The maintaining of seminatural grasslands demands yearly grazing or mowing. If grazing by heavy animals destroys part of the soil, light animals like sheep should be recommended. Habitat conservation by governmental support to traditional agricultural practices is most important, this exists in many countries to maintain extensive agricultural areas, and should be extended to larger areas than today.

Further ecological research is needed to clarify the nutrient strategy of grassland Entoloma species. Management plans are needed. Habitat trends should be monitored.

Use and Trade

The species is not known to be used.

Source and Citation

Jordal, J. 2019. Entoloma porphyrophaeum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T147285942A147875649. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T147285942A147875649.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

Country occurrence