• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Entoloma porphyrophaeum (Fr.) P. Karst.

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Scientific name
Entoloma porphyrophaeum
Author
(Fr.) P. Karst.
Common names
Lilac Pinkgill
grimiznosmeđa rudoliska
Porfyrbrun rødblad
pruun punalehik
kyyhkyrusokas
Porphyrbrauner Rötling
Porfiersatijnzwam
lillabrun rødspore
dzwonkówka porfirowobrązowa
porfirasta rdečelistka
porfyrrödling
Entolome porphyre
závojenka šedohnědá
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Entolomataceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A2c+3c+4c
Proposed by
John Bjarne Jordal
Assessors
John Bjarne Jordal
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Daniel Dvořák, Irja Saar

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Entoloma porphyrophaeum is a species of seminatural grassland in Europe, up to subalpine areas. The habitats are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining and pollution (nitrogen deposition). Over the distribution range we assume a total habitat loss of 30-50% over the last 50 years (approximately three generations: one generation is assumed to be about 17 years). Habitat quality has also become impaired and the decline in population size over this time could be even higher, strengthening the assumption of nearly 50% population decline. This decline in habitat is ongoing and expected to continue over the next 50 years. GBIF lists more than 1300 occurrences. The species is assumed to have a population of more than 20000 mature individuals. At a global scale (i.e. Europe) the population decline is assumed to be on the average 30-50% in 50 years (past, present and future). The species meets the threshold for VU (A2c+3c+4c).


Taxonomic notes

Entoloma porphyrophaeum Bres. is described from Sweden but the type does not exist (Noordeloos 1992). The taxonomic status of GBIF occurences in N America is doubtful and not included here. There is hardly any proof of European Entoloma species occurring in N America (M. Noordeloos pers. comm.). Synonyme: Trichopilus porphyrophaeus (Fr.) P.D. Orton


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This is a European species of seminatural grasslands, habitats which are declining due to changing agricultural practices, development projects, mining and pollution. It is redlisted in many countries.


Geographic range

The species is with certainty only known from Europe, where it occurs in many countries from the lowlands up to subalpine areas (se also GBIF 2019), especially in the northwestern part (UK and Scandinavia). The eastern limit is uncertain due to lack of data.


Population and Trends

According to GBIF (2019) there are >1300 occurrences from Europe. Based on available information on trends in seminatural grasslands, Griffith et al. (2013) estimated a habitat loss of 90% over the last 75 years for the CHEG-fungi (grassland fungi of Clavariaceae, Hygrocybe s.l., Entoloma and Geoglossaceae) as a whole in Western Europe. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the area of grasslands in the EU declined by 12.8% over 13 years (1990-2003). Also other sources point to a habitat loss in seminatural grasslands of roughly 1% per year in Europe over a longer time, although the data quality is not always very good. Over the whole distribution range we assume a total habitat loss and population decline of 30-50% over the last 50 years. As the habitat quality is also declining, population decline could be higher. Much of European grasslands have bad habitat quality. This trend is ongoing and expected to continue in the future.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Entoloma porphyrophaeum grows in mycologically rich but nutrient-poor semi-natural grasslands. Semi-natural grasslands are rapidly disappearing due to changes in land use (see Threats). It is found from the sea up to subalpine (and sometimes also alpine) areas in Scandinavia and in the Alps. The nutrient strategy is unknown. In Norway, most localities of the species are in seminatural grasslands (N=100; 91% in seminatural grasslands, and 9% in forests; Jordal et al. 2016), and similar patterns are found in other countries. The fruit bodies are short-lived (weeks), but the mycel is suspected to be longlived; >50-100 years.

Temperate Grassland

Threats

Habitat destruction and abandoning are the main threats to seminatural grasslands including. The most important process is probably withgrowing due to ceased grazing/mowing of old seminatural grasslands as part of intensification of agriculture. Further modern cultivation methods like use of fertilizers, pesticides and plowing. Also some places changed land use with the construction of roads, industrial areas, settlements etc. Decline is expected to continue, as at least the areas of seminatural grasslands are of little economic importance in modern agriculture. Most CHEG grasslands (see Population and trends) are among types redlisted as VU, EN or CR in the EU red list of habitats (Jansen et al. 2016)

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasShifting agricultureRoads & railroads

Conservation Actions

The habitats should be protected against destruction due to intensification of agriculture or development plans. The maintaining of seminatural grasslands demands yearly grazing or mowing. If grazing by heavy animals destroys part of the soil, light animals like sheep should be recommended. Habitat conservation by governmental support to traditional agricultural practices is most important, this exists in many countries to maintain extensive areas of agricultural areas, and should be extended to larger areas than today.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionAwareness & communicationsConservation payments

Research needed

Further ecological research isneeded to clarify the nutrient strategy of grassland Entoloma’s. Management plans are needed. Habitat trends should be monitored.

Population size, distribution & trendsArea-based Management PlanHabitat trends

Use and Trade

The species is not known to be used.


Bibliography

Artdatabanken Sweden 2019. Artfakta Entoloma porphyrophaeum. http://artfakta.artdatabanken.se/taxon/605
Artsdatabanken Norway 2019. https://www.artsdatabanken.no/Rodliste
Atlas grzybów Polski 2019. Mushrooms and Fungi of Poland: Entoloma porphyrophaeum. https://www.grzyby.pl/gatunki/Entoloma_porphyrophaeum.htm
Finnish Biodiversity Information Facility 2019. Suomen lajitietokeskus. https://laji.fi/en
Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 2006. FAO Statistical Yearbook. – FAOSTAT.
Foreningen til svampekundskabens fremme 2019. Danmarks svampeatlas. https://svampe.databasen.org/
GBIF 2019. Entoloma porphyrophaeum. https://www.gbif.org/species/2539995
German Mycological Society 2019. Pilzen Deutschlands: Entoloma porphyrophaeum. http://www.pilze-deutschland.de/organismen/entoloma-porphyrophaeum-fr-p-karst-1879-1
Gozdarski Institut Slovenije 2019. Varstvo gozdov Slovenije: Entoloma porphyrophaeum. https://www.zdravgozd.si/bi_karta_sre.aspx?idorg=bf4b90d6-8114-4c2a-a2ee-547cb4b3c078
Griffith, G. W., Gamarra, J. P., Holden, E. M., Mitchel, D., Graham, A., Evans, D. A., et al. (2013) The international conservation importance of welsh ’waxcap’ grasslands. Mycosphere 4: 969–984. http://mycosphere.org/pdf/MC4_5_No10.pdf
Janssen, JAM, J.S. Rodwell, M. García Criado, S. Gubbay, T. Haynes, A. Nieto, N. Sanders, F. Lan-ducci, J. Loidi, A. Ssymank, T. Tahvanainen, M. Valderrabano, A. Acosta, M. Aronsson, G. Arts, F. Attorre, E. Bergmeier, R.-J. Bijlsma, F. Bioret, C. Biţă-Nicolae, I. Biurrun, M. Calix, J. Capelo, A. Čar-ni, M. Chytrý, J. Dengler, P. Dimopoulos, F. Essl, H. Gardfjell, D. Gigante, G. Giusso del Galdo, M. Hájek, F. Jansen, J. Jansen, J. Kapfer, A. Mickolajczak, J.A. Molina, Z. Molnár, D. Paternoster, A. Piernik, B. Poulin, B. Renaux, J.H.J. Schaminée, K. Šumberová, H. Toivonen, T. Tonteri, I. Tsiripidis, R. Tzonev and M. Valachovič, (2016). European Red List of habitats. Part 2, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. European Union, Luxembourg. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/knowledge/pdf/terrestrial_EU_red_list_report.pdf
Jordal, J.B., Evju, M., Gaarder, G., 2016. Habitat specificity of selected grassland fungi in Norway. Agarica 37: 5-32. http://www.jbjordal.no/publikasjoner/Habitat_specificity_Jordal_et_al2016.pdf
Noordeloos ME 1982. Studies in Entoloma 1-5. Int. J. Myc. Lich. 1(1):49-60.
Noordeloos ME 1992. Entoloma s.l. Fungi Europaei, vol. 5. Giovanna Biella, Saronno, Italy.
Österreichische Mykologische Gesellschaft 2019. Datenbank der Pilze Österreichs. http://austria.mykodata.net/Taxa_0.aspx
NBN Atlas 2019. Entoloma porphyrophaeum. https://species.nbnatlas.org/species/NHMSYS0001481633
Nederlandse Mykologische Vereniging 2019. Verspreidingsatlas Paddenstoelen: Entoloma porphyrophaeum. https://www.verspreidingsatlas.nl/0040840
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 2019. Swiss fungi. Distribution atlas. https://swissfungi.wsl.ch/en/distribution-data/distribution-atlas.html
Tkalčec Z., Mešić A., Matočec N, Kušan I., 2008. Crvena Knjiga Gljiva Hrvatske/Red Book Of Croatian Fungi. Ministarstvo Kulture. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode Republika Hrvatska. Zagreb. 430 pp.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted