• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • 5Published

Hygrocybe lamalama Desjardin & Hemmes

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Scientific name
Hygrocybe lamalama
Author
Desjardin & Hemmes
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A3ce
Proposed by
Else Vellinga
Assessors
Else Vellinga
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Status Notes

Justification

Hygrocybe lamalama is a conspicuous deep orange to yellow orange species with a dry cap and stem, which is found only in native tropical wet montane forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha (ʻŌhiʻa) and Cibotium spp. on four Hawaiian islands. The habitat is under constant threat, from invasion of non-native plant species, habitat destruction for road construction (especially on Hawai’i), and lately especially the rapid spread of ʻŌhiʻa rapid wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata which kills ʻŌhiʻa trees throughout the island. A reduction in population size of more than 30% is projected within the span of 3 generations (30 years) for the occurrence of this species on Hawai’i, due to the spread of an introduced pathogen that kills the overstory tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, which results in a severe decline in habitat quality, making it unsuitable for this species. The main subpopulation of this species is known from Hawai’i with fewer records from Kaua’i, Mau’i, and Moloka’i, where the habitat is still widely available. But it is feared that the pathogen will not remain being confined to one island, but that it will spread to the other islands. It is listed as as Vulnerable based on projected declining population.


Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

Endemic to Hawaii, USA. Known from several locations on four Hawaiian islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui and Moloka’i.


Population and Trends

Hygrocybe lamalama is growing only in native tropical wet montane forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha (ʻŌhiʻa) and Cibotium spp. The habitat is under constant threat, from invasion of non-native plant species, habitat destruction for road construction (especially on Hawai’i), and lately especially the rapid spread of ʻŌhiʻa rapid wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata which kills ʻŌhiʻa trees throughout the island. A reduction in population size of more than 30% is projected within the span of 3 generations (30 years cf Dahlberg & Mueller, 2011) for the occurrence of this species on Hawai’i, due to the spread of an introduced pathogen that kills the overstory tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, which results in a severe decline in habitat quality, making it unsuitable for this species. The main subpopulation of this species is known from Hawai’i with fewer records from Kaua’i, Mau’i, and Moloka’i, where the habitat is still widely available. But it is feared that the pathogen will not remain being confined to one island, but that it will spread to the other islands.

Population Trend:


Habitat and Ecology

Solitary to scattered, seldom gregarious, in soil or among mosses (mainly Rhizogonium sp.) in Montane Mesic Forest (Ohi’a Forest) and Montane Wet Forest (Ohi’a Forest), or seldom in Montane Mesic Forest dominated by koa (Acacia koa) (Desjardin & Hemmes 1997). The nutritional mode of Hygrocybe and Gliophorus species is still not fully understood; it is presumably biotrophic, but how is not clear yet. Hygrocybe is not saprotrophic, nor ectomycorrhizal (Griffith et al. 2002; Halbwachs et al. 2013; Seitzmann et al. 2011).Dispersal i s by airborne spores.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The major threats to the habitat in which this species grows are: habitat destruction because of road construction (in particular widening of the Saddle Road on Hawaii - so far the tree islands among the lava streams (kipukas) where the species is found have been spared), habitat destruction because of a rapidly spreading deadly disease of the dominant tree (Metrosideros polymorpha; ʻŌhiʻa), caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata (Keith et al. 2015; http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/disease/ohia_wilt.html); so far the disease has been found on Hawaii only, but is feared to spread to other islands; ʻŌhiʻa is dominant in many different Hawaiian forest ecosystems; and lastly, invasion of other non-native species is an ever present threat to native forests on these isolated islands.

Roads & railroadsNamed species

Conservation Actions

Sanitary actions to restrict the spread of Ceratocystis fimbriata have to be taken immediately, to prevent the spread into more montane habitats, and spread to the other islands (so far it is only known to occur on Hawai’i).
Raising awareness of the mycological importance of the tree islands (kipukas) on Hawaii is also necessary.

Invasive/problematic species control

Research needed


Use and Trade


Bibliography

Desjardin, D.E. & D.E. Hemmes, 1997. Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands. 4: Hygrophoraceae. Mycologia 89: 615–638.
Griffith, G.W., G.L. Easton & A.W. Jones, 2002. Ecology and diversity of waxcap (Hygrocybe spp.) fungi. Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 7–22.
Halbwachs H., P. Karsch & G.W. Griffith, 2013. The diversity of Hygrocybe – peeking into an enigmatic lifestyle. Mycosphere 4: 773–792. Doi 10.5943/mycosphere/4/4/14
Keith, L.M., R.F. Hughes, L.S. Sugiyama, W. P. Heller, B.C. Bushe & J.B. Friday. 2015. First Report of Ceratocystis wilt on ʻŌhiʻa. Plant Disease 99: 1276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-14-1293-PDN
Seitzman, B.H., Ouimette, A., Mixon, R.L., Hobbie, E.A., Hibbett, D.S. 2011. Conservation of biotrophy in Hygrophoraceae inferred from combined stable isotope and phylogenetic analyses. Mycologia 103: 280–290.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted