• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
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Hygrocybe spadicea (Fr.) P. Karst.

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Scientific name
Hygrocybe spadicea
Author
(Fr.) P. Karst.
Common names
Date Waxcap 
dadelvaxskivling
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Hygrophoraceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A4c
Proposed by
Eef Arnolds
Assessors
Eef Arnolds
Contributors
Anders Dahlberg, Michael Krikorev, Thomas Læssøe
Comments etc.
Jean Berube

Assessment Status Notes

Hygrocybe spadicea is assessed as Endangered (A4c) based on a suspected, continuing decline of approximately 60% in three generations (50 years).

Taxonomic notes

Hygrocybe spadicea is variable in some characters. Next to var. spadicea with bright yellow lamellae, var. albifolia is distinguished with white lamellae. See photograph 1 from Sweden. In view of research in other species complexes of Hygrocybe it is unlikely that the few records of H. spadicea from North-America and New Zealand represent the same biological species as in Eurasia. These records are not considered here.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Hygrocybe spadicea is a well-characterized waxcap with a brown, conical to umbonate pileus, contrasting with the yellow stipe and lamellae. The species is characteristic for grass-heaths on dry, very poor, acidic to weakly acidic soil and for limestone-grasslands, in Europe priority plant communities in the Natura2000 network that are strongly declining allover Europe. The species has a wide distribution, but it is rare to very rare everywhere (Boertmann, 2010) and decreasing; reason why it is included in numerous national Red Lists.


Geographic range

Europe, Central Asia, from the lowland to the subalpine zone. Possibly also in a few places in North-America and New Zealand,


Population and Trends

Hygrocybe spadicea is widespread in Europe, but (very) rare on very scattered localities throughout its range (Boertmann, 2010).  Populations are usually very small (1-5 mycelia) and fruiting irregularly. Populations are strongly declining, reflected in its position on many national and regional Red Lists, e.g. Regionally extinct in Poland and Estonia; Critically endangered in Finland, Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen; Endangered in Croatia, France, Norway, Germany, Austria and Switzerland;  Vulnerable in Sweden; Near threatened in Denmark. H. spadicea is absent from the Netherlands and FLandres. In view of the strong decrease of the surface of old, well-developed grass-heaths throughout Europe, the decline of H. spadicea is estimated at more than 50% during the last 50 years (three generations of this fungus). The decrease is still continuing. In North-America H. spadicea is reported as very rare on very few, scattered localities (Hesler & Smith, 1963; Bessette et al., 1997), but they are regarded here as doubtful (see remarks on taxonomy). Data on the trends in North-America are unknown.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

In Europe Hygrocybe spadicea is a characteristic species of ancient, unimproved, low productive grass-heaths on very poor, acidic, sandy or loamy soils and on shallow, calcareous soils above limestone. It has a preference for dry, exposed slopes in hilly or mountainous areas (Boertmann, 2010). It ususally occurs in sites with a rich mycoflora, including many other rare and threatened species. Like other waxcaps H. spadicea probably lives in biotrophic association with herbaceous plants, but details on its habitat exploitation are unknown. In North-America it also is reported from scrub and frondose forests (Hesler & Smith, 1963).

Temperate GrasslandPastureland

Threats

The main threat to Hygrocybe spadicea is loss of habitat by changing land use, including grassland improvement by ferlilizer application and conversion into monocultures for agro-industry; abandoning of seminatural grasslands, followed by natural succession to scrub and forests; forest plantations; inappropriate management, also in protected sites (under- or overgrazing; mowing without removal of the sward, etcetera). In addition the species is threatened by acidification and nitrogen deposition, also in protected areas.

Agro-industry farmingNutrient loads

Conservation Actions

Protection of sites of this species, in particular those with good and regularly fruiting populations, as nature reserves.  Continuation of extensive grassland management is essential. The species would benefit from a reduction of air pollution (nitrogen deposition).

Site/area protectionSite/area management

Research needed

More detailed knowledge of the ecological range and characteristics of the habitat, e.g. concerning critical load of nitrogen. Taxonomic research, including molecular characters, of populations in Europe, North-America and New-Zealand to find out whether they are conspecific.

Life history & ecology

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Arnolds, E. in C. Bas et al. 1990. Flora agaricina neerlandica 2.
Bessette, A.E., A.R. Bessette & D.W. Fischer. 1997. Mushrooms of Northeastern North America.
Boertmann, D. 2010. The genus Hygrocybe.
Candusso, M. 1997. Hygrophorus sl. Fungi Europaei 6.
Hesler, L.R. & A.H. Smith. 1963. North American species of Hygrophorus.
Krieglsteiner, G.J. 2001. Die Grosspilze Baden-Württembergs 3.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted