• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • NTPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Anthracoidea andina (Kukkonen) Vánky

Go to another Suggested Species...

Scientific name
Anthracoidea andina
Author
(Kukkonen) Vánky
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Rust and Smut
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Ustilaginomycetes
Order
Ustilaginales
Family
Anthracoideaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT B1a,2a
Proposed by
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Assessors
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Contributors
Teodor T. Denchev
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Craig Hilton-Taylor

Assessment Status Notes

Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Anthracoidea andina is a host specific smut fungus which forms sori in ovaria of Schoenus andinus (Cyperaceae).

The host plant, Schoenus andinus, is distributed in Chile and Argentina – in central Chile and Patagonia (including Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn Archipelago).

The smut fungus, Anthracoidea andina, has considerably more restricted distribution, comparing with that of the host plant. It is endemic to Tierra del Fuego and is only found near Fontaine River (a river which flows in Almirantazgo Fjord) and near Escondido Lake (Roivainen 1977; Denchev et al. 2015). The first locality is situated west of Fagnano Lake while the second one is south of Fagnano Lake. The distance between them is about 74 km.

In both sites, Schoenus andinus grows in wetlands mostly or largely occupied by peat-forming plant communities. These wetlands are threatened by peat mining, urban development, road construction, recreational activities, overgrazing, and Canadian beaver invasion (Iturraspe & Urciuolo 2004; Grootjans et al. 2010, 2014).

The main threat to these communities is the peat mining. Other treats are the recreational activities.

Cattle breeding is an important economic activity in the northern and central regions of Tierra del Fuego and most of the fens are still used for hay production. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires is conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Many calcareous fens have been degraded by cattle that trample the vegetated top layer. Increase of livestock grazing in Tierra del Fuego may increase nutrient deposition, and this may be especially significant for the extremely nutrient-poor bogs and fens (Grootjans et al. 2014).

Additionally, these plant communities are threatened by the invasion of the Canadian beaver. Twenty-five pairs of beavers were introduced to Tierra del Fuego in 1946 and the population has expanded to more than 100 000 animals (Lizarralde et al. 2004), which have a large impact on the landscape. Damming of watercourses by beavers may flood parts of a mire, increase water storage on the mire surface or raise the water level in the mire. Beavers also drain mires and pools by excavating channels to facilitate their own movements, and bursting of their dams may initiate erosion events that substantially lower the drainage base. Both flooding and drainage arising from beaver activity generate rapid changes in local hydrology and vegetation. In view of the high rates of beaver colonisation, the cumulative changes could be very substantial and, given that beaver ponds are often abandoned, it is anticipated a desiccating effect in the long term (Grootjans et al. 2014).

Preliminary red-list assessment: NT B1a,2a (Near Threatened)

Anthracoidea andina is a rare parasitic fungus. It is red-listed as NT because most probably, it fulfills B-criterion (extent of occurrence estimated not to exceed 20 000 km2; area of occupancy estimated not to exceed 500 km2; and continuing decline – observed, inferred or projected – in the extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, area, extent, and quality of the habitat) but this species needs additional study on potential threats (especially, in the Chilean Tierra del Fuego) and search for additional localities in both Argentine and Chilean parts of Tierra del Fuego.


Geographic range

Anthracoidea andina is endemic to Tierra del Fuego and is only found near Fontaine River (a river which flows in Almirantazgo Fjord) (Denchev et al. 2015) and near Escondido Lake (Roivainen 1977). The first locality is situated west of Fagnano Lake while the second one is south of Fagnano Lake. The distance between them is about 74 km.


Population and Trends

Not enough information is available to permit comment on population levels.

Population Trend: Deteriorating


Habitat and Ecology

The sori of Anthracoidea andina are developed in ovaria of Schoenus andinus. The fungus is host-specific and depends on its host plant.

In both sites where infected plants are established, Schoenus andinus grows in wetlands mostly or largely occupied by peat-forming plant communities.

Wetlands (inland)Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]

Threats

The plant communities where Anthracoidea andina is found are threatened by peat mining, urban development, road construction, recreational activities, overgrazing, and Canadian beaver invasion (Iturraspe & Urciuolo 2004; Grootjans et al. 2010, 2014).

The main threat to these communities is the peat mining. Other treats are the recreational activities.

Cattle breeding is an important economic activity in the northern and central regions of Tierra del Fuego and most of the fens are still used for hay production. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires is conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Many calcareous fens have been degraded by cattle that trample the vegetated top layer. Increase of livestock grazing in Tierra del Fuego may increase nutrient deposition, and this may be especially significant for the extremely nutrient-poor bogs and fens (Grootjans et al. 2014).

Additionally, these plant communities are threatened by the invasion of the Canadian beaver. Damming of watercourses by beavers may flood parts of a mire, increase water storage on the mire surface or raise the water level in the mire. Beavers also drain mires and pools by excavating channels to facilitate their own movements, and bursting of their dams may initiate erosion events that substantially lower the drainage base. Both flooding and drainage arising from beaver activity generate rapid changes in local hydrology and vegetation. In view of the high rates of beaver colonization, the cumulative changes could be very substantial and, given that beaver ponds are often abandoned, it is anticipated a desiccating effect in the long term (Grootjans et al. 2014).

Residential & commercial developmentHousing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasAgriculture & aquacultureLivestock farming & ranchingEnergy production & miningMining & quarryingHuman intrusions & disturbanceRecreational activitiesInvasive & other problematic species, genes & diseasesInvasive non-native/alien species/diseases

Conservation Actions

The known localities of this smut fungus are not situated in a protected area.

Land/water protectionSite/area protectionLand/water managementSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationEducation & awarenessAwareness & communications

Research needed

Further information is needed about population levels and distribution of the fungus. It needs additional study on potential threats.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsThreatsMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Bibliography

Denchev, C.M., Sipman, H.J.M. and Denchev, T.T. 2015. New records of smut fungi. 9. A second locality of Anthracoidea andina. Mycotaxon. In press.

Grootjans, A., Iturraspe, R., Lanting, A., Fritz, C. and Joosten, H. 2010. Ecohydrological features of some contrasting mires in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Mires and Peat 6: 1–15.

Grootjans, A., Iturraspe, R., Fritz, C., Moen, A. and Joosten, H. 2014. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Mires and Peat 14: 1–20.

Iturraspe, R.J. and Urciuolo, A.B. 2004. Les tourbières de la Terre de Feu en Argentine: un patrimoine naturel très menacé. Géocarrefour 79: 325–330.

Lizarralde, M., Escobar, J. and Deferrari, G. 2004. Invader species of Argentina: A review about beaver (Castor canadensis) population situation on Tierra del Fuego ecosystem. Interciencia 29: 352–356.

Roivainen, H. 1977. Resultados micologicos de la expedición a Argentina y Chile en 1969–1970. Karstenia 17: 1–18.

Vánky, K. 2011. Smut Fungi of the World. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.


Citation
Denchev, C.M. & Denchev, T.T. 2015. Anthracoidea andina (Kukkonen) Vánky. In: The Global Fungal Red List Initiative. http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/412475/.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted