• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • NTAssessed
  • 5Published

Cortinarius pinophilus Soop

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Scientific name
Cortinarius pinophilus
Author
Soop
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Cortinariaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A2c+3c+4c
Proposed by
Tor Erik Brandrud
Assessors
Tor Erik Brandrud
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.

Justification

Cortinarius pinophilus is associated with Pinus sylvestris in Europe and adjacent Asia (W Siberia). In North America associated with Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus contorta. Its habitat in Eurasia is dry, lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests, exceptionally also in ombrotrophic Sphagnum bogs with Pinus (Siberia). The species occurs mainly in older/old-growth forests. In N America the species is not reported in sandy forests, but apparently in oligotrophic sites with deep moss including hummocks.
The lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests in large parts of Europe have been seriously declining, suffering from eutrophication (N-enrichment; changing to grass-dominant communities), forestry, roads/industry/settlements/military activity as well as gravel pits. Intact sandy pine forests with good ecological conditions are now remaining mainly in boreal N Europe including adjacent Asia (w/ W Siberia). Little is known about the decline in C. pinophilus habitats in N America.
Global red-list assessment: The species is known from approx. 100 sites/localities in Fennoscandia (20 localities in E Norway, approx. 40 in Sweden, and probably the same from Finland). The total population in Fennoscandia is estimated to approx.. 1 000 sites/localities. The species is apparently more frequent in sandy Scotch pine forests of W Siberia, and the total Russian populations are estimated to approx. 2 000 sites/localities. The species is at present very rare in W-C Europe (but known from N Italy and W Hungary). According to IUCN-standards, we estimate the number of individuals to 60 000 in Europe, probably 80 000-100 000 globally.
The decline of the major habitat of C. pinophilus (dry, sandy pine forests) in the evaluation period (last 50 years) is estimated to be in the magnitude of 15-20%., with especially much habitat-loss in The Netherlands, Germany, Poland and adjacent regions. Based on this, the species becomes red-listed as NT according to the A-criterion (A2c + 3c + 4c) (species/habitat decline >15%).


Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

The species apparently follows the boreal, sandy pine forests on glacifluvial deposits, throughout Fennoscandia and as far east to W Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk-Tomsk region), probably also further east. In Fennoscandia, the species is more or less confined to the boreal regions (only exceptionally in boreonemoral zone.). In C Europe, the species is known from a few glacial/glacifluvial sites in N Italy and Hungary. Little is known about the distribution and frequence of the species in C/W Europe before the depauperation of this habitat (eutrophication, etc.).
In N America the species are known from Canada (NW British Colombia) and USA (W Washington).


Population and Trends

The species is known from approx. 90 sites/localities in Fennoscandia (20 localities in E Norway, approx. 40 in Sweden, and approx 30 sites from Finland). The total population in Fennoscandia is estimated to approx..  900 sites/localities. The species is apparently locally more frequent in sandy Scotch pine forests of W Siberia, and the total Russian populations are estimated to approx. 2 000 sites/localities. The species is at present very rare in C Europe (but known from N Italy and W Hungary). According to IUCN-standards, we estimate the number of individuals to 60 000 in Europe. In North America, the species are so far reported from four sites. Quite roughly, the American occurrences are estimated to be > 1000 sites/localities. This gives an estimate of > 20 000 IUCN individuals in North America, and approx.. 80 000 individuals globally.
The decline of the major habitat of C. pinophilus (older, dry, sandy pine forests) in the evaluation period (last 50 years) is estimated on average to be in the magnitude of 15-20%., with especially much habitat-loss in The Netherlands, Germany, Poland and adjacent regions, where this habitat has almost disappeared. Based on this, the species becomes red-listed as NT according to the A-criterion (A2c + 3c + 4c) (species/habitat decline >15%).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Cortinarius pinophilus is associated with Pinus sylvestris in Europe and adjacent Asia (W Siberia). In North America associated with Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus contorta. Its habitat in Eurasia are dry, lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests (Brandrud & Bendiksen 2014), exceptionally also in ombrotrophic Sphagnum bogs with Pinus (Siberia; pers. obs.). The species occurs mainly in older/old-growth forests. In N America the species is not reported in sandy forests, but apparently in oligotrophic sites with deep moss including hummocks (Ammirati et al. 2012).

Boreal Forest

Threats

The major habitat of C. pinophilus, the lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests has been seriously declining in large parts of Europe, suffering from eutrophication (N-enrichment; changing to grass-dominant communities), forestry, roads/industry/settlements/military activity as well as gravel pits. Intact sandy pine forests with good ecological conditions are now remaining mainly in boreal N Europe including adjacent Asia (w/ W Siberia), but also here the forests are subject to intensive forestry. Little is known about the status of the C. pinophilus habitats in N America. If the species and its habitat in N America are not declining,the species are probably near the threshold value for redlisting as NT.

Housing & urban areasUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Type Unknown/Unrecorded

Conservation Actions

To prevent decline and further fragmentation of dry, sandy pine forests with good habitat quality, it is important to set aside reserves, housing many rare/redlisted, habitat-specific species such as C. neofurvolaesus, C. quarciticus and C. pinigaudis. It is furthermore important to establish also sites with a less strict conservation regime, such as woodland key biotopes, where some non-destructive human activities are accepted (such as non-intensive forestry, with closed cutting).

Site/area protection

Research needed

More mapping/surveying and monitoring of C. pinophilus is needed, especially in N America, but also in remote parts of Siberia. Finally, more documentation on the degree of decline of the habitats themselves is needed, especially from N America.

Population size, distribution & trendsThreats

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Ammirati J, Liimatainen K, Niskanen T, Wright L, Robertson CP, Meyer C, Machnicki N, Birkebak J, Allen A, 2012. Cortinarius pinophilus Soop in the Pacific Northwest of North America. North American Fungi 7(8): 1-6.
Brandrud, T. E. & Bendiksen, E. 2014. Fungi of sandy pine forests in Norway, and a comparison of this threatened element elsewhere in Europe(-Asia). Agarica 35: 67-87.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted