• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
  • Published

Amanita fuligineodisca Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling

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Scientific name
Amanita fuligineodisca
Author
Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Published
Proposed by
Natalia Vargas
Assessors
Adriana Calle, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Thiago Kossmann, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Pablo Sandoval-Leiva, Daniela Torres, Natalia Vargas, Aída M. Vasco-Palacios
Editors
Gregory Mueller
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, James Westrip
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Amanita fuligineodisca is a mycorrhizal mushroom that can be found in montane forests from Mexico into Colombia associated with species of Quercus and Pinus. There is no direct information that the population has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to extensive past and ongoing habitat loss and decline in habitat quality. While broadly distributed, Central American montane Pine and Quercus dominated forests are under threat throughout much of their range due to land use changes, including timber harvest, conversion to pine and other non-native tree plantations, agriculture, and expansion of towns and cities. Further pressure and population reductions are expected to continue. Additionally, there is evidence of replacement of native mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of Quercus by exotic species, including Amanita muscaria, that were introduced with pines. As A. fuligineodisca is an obligate mycorrhizal fungus, it is directly impacted by a decline in its hosts. Due to past significant loss of its hosts and projected continued loss, the estimated past and future decline for the population of A. fuligineodisca is projected to be between 30-35% over three generations, making the species Vulnerable.


Taxonomic notes

The ectomycorrhizal species Amanita fuligineodisca was described originally by Tulloss et al. (1992) associated with Quercus species. A. fuligineodisca belongs to the section Vaginatae (Subgenus Amanita) close to Amanita fulva. They differ by the darker pileus disc and a lower angle of split of the inflated cells in the hymenophoral trama in A. fuligineodisca (Tulloss et al. 1992).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

A. fuligineodisca specimens have been collected in oak forests where the invasive species Amanita muscaria is introduced. Although the impacts of this invasive species have not been explored on native fungi in Colombia, previous studies reported negative impacts including competitive interactions with native fungi.


Geographic range

Amanita fuligineodisca has been documented from Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica and Colombia with herbarium records. It likely occurs throughout Central America associated with Quercus, Pinus, and possibly other ectomycorrhizal hosts, but there are no reports from other countries.


Population and Trends

The species has been documented with herbarium records from Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica and Colombia. It likely occurs throughout Central America associated with Quercus, Pinus and other hosts, but there are no reports from other countries. It is relatively common in Costa Rica and Colombia. In Colombia there are many specimens stored in the herbarium HUA, Universidad de Antioquia, collected from the municipalities of Santa Rosa de Osos, Belmira, La Union and Medellín (department of Antioquia). In the department of Tolima there are specimen records from the municipality of Murillo. Specimens are also stored in the ANDES_F collection, with material from the municipalities of El Peñon and vereda San José de la Montaña (department of Santander), the municipality of San Antonio del Tequendama (department of Cundinamarca) and the municipalities of Arcabuco, Gachantiva and Villa de Leyva (department of Boyacá). In Mexico it is known from Chiapas. In Costa Rica it has been reported throughout much of the Cordillera Talamanca. 
There is no direct information that the population has declined, but a significant decline is inferred due to extensive past and ongoing habitat loss and decline in habitat quality. While broadly distributed, Central American montane Pine and Quercus dominated forests are under threat throughout much of their range due to land use changes, including timber harvest, conversion to pine and other non-native tree plantations, agriculture, and expansion of towns and cities. Further pressure and population reductions are expected to continue. Additionally, there is evidence of replacement of native mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of Quercus by exotic species, including Amanita muscaria, that were introduced with pines (Vargas et al. 2019). There has been a nearly 42% loss of Quercus humboldtii populations in Colombia, and the tree has been nationally listed there as vulnerable (VU A2cd) there (Cardenas and Salinas 2007). Deforestation in Colombia has increased in recent years and is anticipated to continue into the future. In Chiapas, Mexico, 50% of the montane forests were lost between 1975-2000 (Cayuela et al, 2006). Based on data from the Global Forest Watch Report (2020) there was forest loss of 18% for Guatemala and Nicaragua and 7.5% for El Salvador in the years 2001-2018. There is less data available to predict the decline in Costa Rica. Parts of the Talamancas are protected in National parks, but other areas are privately held, and there is limited logging ongoing as well as commercial and housing developments. As A. fuligineodisca is an obligate mycorrhizal fungus, it is directly impacted by a decline in its hosts. Due to past significant loss of its hosts and projected continued loss, the estimated ongoing decline for the population of A. fuligineodisca is projected to be between 30-35% over three generations (50 years; per Dahlberg and Mueller 2011).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Amanita fuligineodisca is an ectomycorrhizal species associated with montane Quercus and/or Pinus throughout much of Central America and into Colombia.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

While broadly distributed, Central American montane Pine and Quercus dominated forests are under threat throughout much of its range due to land use changes, including timber harvest, conversion to pine and other non-native tree plantations, and expansion of towns and cities. As Amanita fuligineodisca is an obligate mycorrhizal fungus, it is directly impacted by a decline in its hosts. Additionally, there is evidence of replacement of native mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of Quercus by exotic species, including Amanita muscaria, that were introduced with pines (Vargas et al. 2019). Due to a policy aimed at conserving remaining natural areas, there is a lower threat level for the species in Costa Rica (MINAE et al. 2018).

Housing & urban areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingSmall-holder plantationsAgro-industry plantationsAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingMining & quarryingUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unspecified species

Conservation Actions

Using effective strategies could prevent additional introductions of invasive fungi and additional host shifts, among them exotic tree species should be planted apart from native forests to limit potential dispersal to native forests. It would also be useful to focus on developing local inocula, rather than using inocula of introduced fungi (Dickie et al. 2016, Vargas et al. 2019). Moreover, encouraging public awareness on the importance of recognising and reporting early detection of invasive species might help avoiding their spread and the maintenance of native fungal populations.

Site/area managementInvasive/problematic species controlAwareness & communications

Research needed

Research is needed to evaluate population trends and further document distribution of native forest with invasive fungal species. 

Population size, distribution & trendsThreats

Use and Trade

The species is not eaten or used


Bibliography


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted