R-L categories correct, but text here does not match final assessment. Updated version will be published in IUCN´s Red List June or Nov 2019.
Hyphoderma etruriae is a rare resupinate species restricted to south Europe forming thin cream coloured patches in small hollows of trunks and bigger branches of old living juniper shrubs. It grows in few localities in Italy and Macedonia on Juniper excelsa, J. macrocarpa, J. phoenicea, and J. turbinata from the sealevel up to 200m of altitude. The habitats, coastal dunes (Code 2250), arborescent matorral (code 5210) (Natura200) and the macedonian forests with Juniperus excelsa, are in danger of disappearing. Moreover old juniper shrubs or trees, the preferred substrate for the growth of the fungus, are treatened and declining. The rare fungal species is known from less than 10 localities, with fragmented distribution and 2 of this are just disappeared.
The potential distribution could be much wider considering the extent of the habitat where old junipers can be found and so also the estimated population of the fungal species. Considering the suitable habitat, the present threats and the relative limited area investigated, we can hypothesize at least 10 times more trees hosting the fruit bodies. The population size remains small and the risk of decline is high, the species results endangered because of less than 250 mature individuals.
Hyphoderma etruriae is an endemic species to southern Europe, only recorded from 10 localities in 2 countries In Italy it occur from the central to southern part of the peninsula and the 2 larger islands (Sardinia and Sicily). In Macedonia it is recorded in the southeastern part of the country.
Hyphoderma etruriae grows only on Juniperus selecting old shrubs or trees. It has been recorded only from 8 localities/trees and 2 are gone,
limited to Italy and Macedonia the present distribution results fragmented.
The potential distribution could be much wider considering the extent of maquis, thickets and low woods where of old Juniper shrubs can be found and so also the estimated population of the fungal species.
Knowing that the coastal dunes are a priority habitat with estimated surface 100 km2 (Natura2000). The arborescent mattoral has an estimate surface 500km2. Considering the suitable habitat, the present threats and the relative limited area investigated, we can hypothesize at least 10 times more trees hosting the fruit bodies.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Hyphoderma etruriae is a wood-inhabiting fungus requires old shrubs of different Juniperus species, grows in hollows caused by old wounds, on trunks and big branches. The resupinate fruit bodies forming thin cream coloured patches are often covered by spider webs, not easy to be detected and classified. The fungal species studied by few specialists, results to be rare (Gorjon & Bernicchia, 2013).
It has been recorded on J. phoenicea L., J. macrocarpa Sm., J. excelsa (M. Bieb.) Ant. and J. turbinata Guss from the sealevel up to 200m of altitude. These old Juniper shrubs can be found in maquis, thickets and low woods distributed predominantly along the sandy coastal dunes, but are known also from inland areas.
The coastal dunes are described as rare and beautiful features with sparse prostrate or erected juniperus and is a priority habitat. The arborescent mattoral develops on incoherent soils and junipers with its well developed root system prevent soil erosion; here old junipers are “living monuments” (Natura2000).
The species is more or less confined to the following Natura2000 habitats: coastal dunes (Code 2250) and arborescent matorral (code 5210).
In Italy coastal dunes (Code 2250) and arborescent matorral (code 5210) with Juniperus phoenicea L. and J. macrocarpa Sm., in agreement with the EU Habitat directive, are in serious danger of disappearing and unfavorable respectively.
Maquis, thickets and low woods distribuited predominantly along the sandy coastal dunes, have often an inappropiate management addressed to maximize the profit of the tourism industry. Juniper shrubs are pruned in order to open trekking paths and sometimes not survive or have a overproduction of sprouts changing the hoste. In Tuscany it was observed for various years, but after the pruning activities the hosting shrub changed and the species was not detected again. On the other hand there is the logging and domestic use of juniper timber. One locality in Sardinia does not longer exist.
The macedonian forests with Juniperus excelsa are threatened because of the invasion of broadleaved species following abandonment of traditional, low intensity practises.
In all the areas fire could be another threat.
Uptoday the species results restricted to 2 countries, but the habitat such as sandy dunes and arborescent matorral is present and threatened also in other mediterranean and submediterranean areas. Also the Juniperus excelsa forests extends out of Macedonia. In conclusion more investigation is needed to understand its distribution and trends.
At laboraty level more efforts must be done to know better its ecology in order to cultivate and possibly conservate it ex-situ.
Bernicchia, A. 1993. Hyphoderma etruriae sp. nov. (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes) from the natural reserve of Burano, Italy. – Mycotaxon, 46: 37-40.
Bernicchia, A. & Gorjon S.P. 2010. Corticiaceae s.l. Fungi Europaei n° 12. Edizioni Candusso, Italia.
Mitko Karadelev & Lidija Koteska 2013. Hyphoderma etruriae (Meruliaceae, Basidiomycota): a rare corticioid fungus collected in Macedonia. Phytologia Balcanica 19 (1): 3 – 5, Sofia.
http://www.resen.gov.mk/content/Documents/Леап/Conservation action plan for grecian juniper forest.pdf