• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • LCAssessed
  • 5Published

Boletus edulis Bull.

Go to another Suggested Species...

Scientific name
Boletus edulis
Author
Bull.
Common names
Penny Bun / Cep
karjohanssvamp, stensopp
porcini
cèpe
King bolete
Gewoon eekhoorntjesbrood
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
LC
Proposed by
None
Assessors
Anders Dahlberg
Comments etc.
Vladimír Kunca, Wim A. Ozinga, James Westrip
Reviewers
Tommy Knutsson

Assessment Notes

Justification

Boletus edulis is an edible ectomycorrhizal bolete forming mycorrhiza with deciduous and coniferous trees. It is common and widely distributed in the temperate and boreal zone Europe and in Asia. It is a subject for research whether the American B. edulis is the same species as in Europe. Boletus edulis is considered to be among the best edible fungi in the world and is collected in large scale for the market.There is no evidence of decline. It can be locally very abundant where suitable habitat exists. Therefore, it is assessed as Least Concern (LC).


Taxonomic notes


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

Boletus edulis has a cosmopolitan distribution. It is common and widely distributed in the temperate and boreal zone Europe and also from Asia. It occurs widely in North America and in Mexico, although it is an ongoing subject for debate and research whether the American B. edulis is the same species as in Europe. It does not occur naturally in the Southern Hemisphere, although it has been introduced with the establishment of tree plantations to southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. The area of occupancy (AOO) of this species is much larger than 2,000 km², and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is much larger than 20,000 km².


Population and Trends

The population size is likely to be very large since this is such a widespread species and more or less stable. There is no indication of any decline.

Population Trend:


Habitat and Ecology

Boletus edulis is a terrestrial ectomycorrhizal fungus in deciduous and coniferous forests and in open areas with trees, forming ectomycorrhizal with more than 30 species and 15 genera of broadleaved and conifer trees, e.g. Fagus, Quercus, Betula, Tsuga, Abies and Picea, rarely with Pinus (e.g. Wikipedia 2018).

Boreal ForestTemperate Forest

Threats

There are no major threats to this species. It is commonly found in forests and plantations of all ages and also occur in parks and other open areas with their host trees.


Conservation Actions

No conservation measures are needed for this species since it is widespread and there are no major threats to it.


Research needed


Use and Trade

Boletus edulis is a very popular, delicious, meaty mushroom considered to be among the best edible fungi in the world. It is collected in large scale for the market from outside and within Europe (Boa 2004). A 1998 estimate suggests the total annual worldwide consumption of B. edulis and closely related species (B. aereus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus) to be between 20,000 and 100,000 tons (Hall et al 1998). It is only harvested in the wild, as ectomycorrhizal fungi, with few exceptions, cannot be cultivated. Years with above average rainfall may result in the rapid appearance of large numbers of boletes, in what is known as a “bolete year”.

Food - human

Bibliography

Hall IR, Lyon AJ, Wang Y, Sinclair L (1998). “Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies 2. Boletus edulis”. Economic Botany. 52 (1): 44–56. doi:10.1007/BF02861294.


Known distribution - countries

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted