- Scientific name
- Boletus edulis
- Common names
- Penny Bun / Cep
- karjohanssvamp, stensopp
- King bolete
- Gewoon eekhoorntjesbrood
- Egļu baravika
- Белый гриб / боровик
- Ízletes vargánya
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- Dahlberg, A.
- Knutsson, T.
is an edible ectomycorrhizal bolete, forming mycorrhiza with deciduous and coniferous trees. It is common and widely distributed in the temperate and boreal zone Europe and in Asia. It is a subject for research whether the American B. edulis
is the same species as in Europe. Boletus edulis
is considered to be among the best edible fungi in the world and is collected in large scale for the market. There is no evidence of decline. It can be locally very abundant where suitable habitat exists. Therefore, it is assessed as Least Concern (LC).
has a cosmopolitan distribution. It is common and widely distributed in the temperate and boreal zone of Europe and Asia. It occurs widely in North America and in Mexico, although it is an ongoing subject for debate and research whether the American B. edulis
is the same species as in Europe. It does not occur naturally in the Southern Hemisphere, although it has been introduced with the establishment of tree plantations to southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. The area of occupancy (AOO) of this species is much larger than 2,000 km², and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is much larger than 20,000 km².
Population and Trends
The population size is likely to be very large since this is such a widespread species, and more or less stable as there is no indication of any decline.
Population Trend: stable
Habitat and Ecology
is a terrestrial ectomycorrhizal fungus found in deciduous and coniferous forests and in open areas with trees, forming ectomycorrhizal associations with more than 30 species and 15 genera of broadleaved and conifer trees, e.g. Fagus
, rarely with Pinus
(e.g. Wikipedia 2018).
There are no major threats to this species. It is commonly found in forests and plantations of all ages and also occurs in parks and other open areas with their host trees.
No conservation measures are needed for this species since it is widespread and there are no major threats to it.
Use and Trade
is a very popular, delicious, meaty mushroom considered to be among the best edible fungi in the world. It is collected in large scale for the market from outside and within Europe (Boa 2004). A 1998 estimate suggests the total annual worldwide consumption of B. edulis
and closely related species (B. aereus
, B. pinophilus
, and B. reticulatus
) to be between 20,000 and 100,000 tons (Hall et al
. 1998). It is only harvested in the wild, as ectomycorrhizal fungi, with few exceptions, cannot be cultivated. Years with above average rainfall may result in the rapid appearance of large numbers of boletes, in what is known as a “bolete year”.
Source and Citation
Dahlberg, A. 2019. Boletus edulis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T122090234A122090863. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T122090234A122090863.en
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