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Amanita pumatona G.S. Ridl.

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Scientific name
Amanita pumatona
Author
G.S. Ridl.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Amanitaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2019-07-24
IUCN Red List Category
LC
Assessors
Cooper, J.A. & Leonard, P.L.
Reviewers
Dahlberg, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/154229910/154230379

Justification

Amanita pumatona is a large, striking and ectomycorrhizal fungus associated with beech and tea trees in New Zealand. It is obviously a rare mushroom as it has been recorded only seven times at two sites, at Totaranui in the Abel Tasman National Park and in the Rimutaka forest park. However, if the fungus follows the distribution of Fuscospora truncata,then there may be potentially as many as 500 sites and the total population size may reach 15,000 mature individuals. Decline in the extent of the habitat is unlikely but changes in habitat quality are unquantified. It is therefore currently assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic range

Amanita pumatona is endemic to New Zealand and restricted to the south of North Island and the northwest of South Island.

Population and Trends

Amanita pumonata is one of the relatively few Amanita species in New Zealand and is distinctive within the genus. The genus has been well documented and is one of the best studied groups of Agarics in New Zealand. It has only seven observations and there have been no recent records in the original North Island site. 

Over the last five years, 2,500 observers have recorded 54,000 observations of fungi in New Zealand using the iNaturalist platform. 20,000 observations have been verified by multiple experts. This mushroom has not been seen. Despite this increased level of recording, there is a strong possibility of multiple undetected sites. 

If the fungus follows the distribution of Fuscospora truncata, there may be potentially as many as 500 suitable sites. Expecting three mycelial genotypes (functional individuals) to be present at each site gives an estimate of 30 mature individuals per site and that the total population may reach 15,000 mature individuals. Decline in the extent of the habitat is unlikely but changes in habitat quality are unquantified.


Population Trend: unknown


Habitat and Ecology

This is a mycorrhizal fungus which appears to be associated with Hard Beech (Fuscospora truncata). Both fungal subpopulations occur in forested areas that contain other Beech and Tea Tree species so the one to one association with F. truncata is not certain. In both areas the forest has strong maritime influences and is not subject to prolonged frosts, both also have medium rainfall.

Threats

This fungus occurs in the Rimutaka Forest Park in North Island and the Abel Tasman National Park in South Island. Both are protected from clearance of its habitat and its host tree. However, changes are taking place in the habitat. Both sites are subject to high recreational pressure. In the Rimutakas the pressure comes in the form of visitors from nearby Wellington, In the Abel Tasman it largely comes from increasingly large numbers of tourists walking the Abel Tasman Track. Disturbance, trampling and nutrient enrichment all have an effect on the habitat and there may be more direct damage to the fungus due to visitors being unaware of its presence.

Both areas have populations of feral animals, deer and wild pigs. Pigs are known to consume fungi, whilst deer browse the understory and may change the species composition of the forest.

Conservation Actions

Clarifying the mycorrhizal host for Amanita pumatona would be helpful in focusing conservation efforts.

Use and Trade

The species is not utilized.

Source and Citation

Cooper, J.A. & Leonard, P.L. 2019. Amanita pumatona. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T154229910A154230379. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T154229910A154230379.en .Downloaded on 31 January 2021

Country occurrence