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  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • VUAssessed
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Tylopilus subniger Singer, J. García & L.D. Gómez

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Scientific name
Tylopilus subniger
Author
Singer, J. García & L.D. Gómez
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C1
Proposed by
Olivia Ayala Vàsquez
Assessors
Olivia Ayala Vàsquez, Roberto Garibay Orijel
Editors
Ricardo Garcia-Sandoval
Contributors
Olivia Ayala Vàsquez
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Jesús García Jiménez

Assessment Notes

Tylopilus subniger is a conspicuous and rare netropical bolete. Its rarity is not a result of under-sampling as it is easily distinguishable and the Neotropical boletes have been already monographed (Singer et al 1991). The especies is associated to tropical cloud forests and tropical oak forest where its host Quercus oleoides is present. Both, its habitat (Ponce-Reyes et al. 2012) and its host (Gallagher 2018) are threatened; additionally its known subpopulations are scarce and fragmented.

Justification

We assume that Tylopilus subniger should not have more than 200 subpopulations with 500 mature individuals each. In consequence T. subniger should be listed as Vulnerable under criteria C1 as it has less that 10000 projected mature individuals and the population size will decrease at least 10% in the following 50 years.


Taxonomic notes

This mushroom is a large distinctive bolete characterized by its blackish dry and subtomentose pileus that becomes violet brown. The pores first are white then become grayish or brownish. The stipe is fuligineous or dark chocolate, rarely staining yellow at the base, with a reticulation reaching down the to lower third of the stipe.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Tylopilus subniger is a conspicuous and rare netropical bolete. Its rarity is not a result of under-sampling as it is easily distinguishable and the Neotropical boletes have been already monographed (Singer et al 1991). The especies is associated to mountain cloud forests and tropical oak forest where its host Quercus oleoides is present. Both, its habitat and its host are threatened, its known subpopulations are scarce and fragmented. We assume that Tylopilus subniger should not have more than 200 subpopulations with 500 mature individuals each. In consequence T. subniger should be listed as Vulnerable under criteria C1 as it has less that 10000 projected mature individuals and the population size will decrease at least 10% in the following 50 years.


Geographic range

The species is only known from South Mexico and Costa Rica, so it may distribute in the whole Central America following the distribution of its host Quercus oleoides.


Population and Trends

In Mexico there are two known subpopulations in the state of Veracruz: Huatusco and La Banderilla.
In Cost Rica there are two known subpopulations in San Jose and Cartago.
Considering that it is associated with the tropical oak Quercus oleoides already listed as Near Threatened with declining populations, we assume that because its rarity and the fragmented habitat T. subniger should not have more than 200 subpopulations with 500 mature individuals each.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Solitary. In cloud forest and tropical oak forest. Altitude 500-2300m. Ectomycorrhizal with Quercus oleoides.

Temperate ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

Rancho la Pomarrosa, where the species was described is already very fragmented since there are currently crops and only patches of original vegatation remain. In Costa Rica it has been collected in Quercus oleoides and according to the IUCN this species is almost threatened by logging since the value of its wood

Housing & urban areasShifting agricultureScale Unknown/Unrecorded

Conservation Actions

To protect the few known subpopulations habitat.

Site/area protectionSite/area management

Research needed

To investigate the extent of potential additional subpopulations.

Population size, distribution & trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Singer R, García J, Gómez LD (1991) The Boletineae of Mexico and Central America III. Nova Hedwigia, Beihefte 102:1-99.
Ponce-Reyes R, Reynoso-Rosales HV, Watson EMJ, VanDerWal J, Fuller AR, Pressey LR, Possingham PH (2012) Vulnerability of cloud forest reserves in Mexico to climate change. Nature Climatic Change. 2:448-452. DOI:10.1038/NCLIMATE1453
https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/194209/2304166
GBIF.org (30 September 2019) GBIF Occurrence Download https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.visl3t
Gallagher, G. 2018. Quercus oleoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T194209A2304166.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted