AOO is 204 km² is very restricted, with severely fragmented distribution and on-going decline in EOO, AOO, extent of habitat (owing to fire and development), subpopulations, and overall population.
Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?
Widespread disjunct populations in western North America, from California to Washington and Idaho.
EOO = 649,455 km2
AOO = 204 km2
Population and Trends
At least in Idaho, many known subpopulations have been extirpated by grazing, road construction, ... Some chaparral subpopulations have been extirpated by fire?
In WA grazing has made a huge impact that we cannot document because there is no baseline. However, after seeing one site with large thalli we realized how fragmented and degraded the thalli are in grazed areas.
Possibly severely fragmented because dispersal mechanism of spores is unknown and likely very limited.
Cattle trampling fragments thalli and degrades what is left.
Population Trend: Stable
Habitat and Ecology
Oldgrowth, stable sagebrush and chaparral habitats. In these habitats, lithosols, where rock cobble protects thalli from grazing in 2 ways; physically and by discouraging grazing (grass doesn’t grow there).
Housing & urban areasAgro-industry farmingNomadic grazingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingRoads & railroadsRecreational activitiesIncrease in fire frequency/intensityNamed speciesNutrient loadsSoil erosion, sedimentation
Listed G3, N3 in US (United States Rare Lichen Project (ISSSSP website)
Oregon ORBIC S2, Sensitive
Washington S1, Threatened
Recommendations: limit grazing time on leases, terminate leases where TESA is declining and do not reopen grazing on BLM lands that are ungrazed or have not been grazed for 20 years or more. Do not place feed, salt or water troughs in areas with TESA.
Site/area protectionInvasive/problematic species controlHabitat & natural process restorationAwareness & communications
Estimates of population size and trend would be helpful for improving threat assessment.
Possible use of exclosures to understand its ecology better. Terminate grazing leases to understand recovery better.
Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreatsArea-based Management PlanPopulation trends
Use and Trade
This species has no known commerical or cultural uses.
TESA habitat in WA, on lithosol near Artemesia. Daphne Stone
TESA in WA Daphne Stone
TESA habitat near Bobby Lake WA Daphne Stone
TESA in Cleveland Natural Area Prreserve, WA. Bruce McCune